Gastroenterology Book

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Abdominal Anatomy

Aka: Abdominal Anatomy, Abdomen, Gastrointestinal Anatomy, Gastrointestinal System, Digestive System, Gastrointestinal Tract, GI Tract, Alimentary Tract, Digestive Tract
  1. See Also
    1. Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Abdomen
    2. Vascular Anatomy of the Abdomen
    3. Lymphatic Anatomy of the Abdomen
    4. Neurologic Anatomy of the Abdomen
    5. Spleen Anatomy
    6. Stomach Anatomy
    7. Pancreas Anatomy
    8. Liver Anatomy
    9. Bowel Anatomy
    10. Rectal Anatomy
    11. Pelvic Anatomy
    12. Adrenal Anatomy
    13. Renal Anatomy
    14. Bladder Anatomy
    15. Retroperitoneal Anatomy
  2. Physiology: Gastrointestinal Motility
    1. Chewing (mastication)
      1. Chewing breaks apart food for greater surface area, allowing for later processing and absorption
      2. Nerve control: CN 5 (Trigeminal Nerve)
      3. Muscles of Mastication
        1. Masseter Muscle
        2. Temporalis Muscle
        3. Lateral Pterygoid Muscle
        4. Medial Pterygoid Muscle
    2. Swallowing
      1. See Swallowing
      2. See Dysphagia
      3. Oropharyngeal Stage
        1. Food bolus is created and moved to the posterior pharynx, propelled by the Tongue
        2. Food passes ino the esophagus, with the airway protected from aspiration
        3. Nerve control: CN 5, CN 9, CN 10 and CN 12
        4. Saliva and mucus lubricates food for easier transit
      4. Esophageal Stage
        1. See Achalasia
        2. Esophageal mucus (produced by mucous cells) lubricates the esophagus for food transit
        3. Nerve Control: CN 10
          1. Voluntary control in upper third of esophagus
          2. Involuntary, autonomic control in the lower esophagus
    3. Peristalsis
      1. See Ileus
      2. Peristalsis propels food from the Stomach forward through the intestinal tract
      3. Timing
        1. Solid Food exits the Stomach after 1-3 hours
        2. Food exits the Small Intestine (at the ileocecal valve) after 4-6 hours
        3. Food exits the colon with Defecation typically after 1-2 days
      4. Nerve Control: CN 10 (Vagal Nerve)
        1. Stimulates peristalsis
          1. Myenteric Plexus (Auerbach's plexus) between the bowel's circular and longitudinal Muscles
        2. Relaxes sphincters
        3. Promotes glandular secretion
          1. Meissner's Plexus in the submucosal layer
  3. Physiology: Digestion Mediators
    1. Mouth
      1. Salivary Amylase
        1. Breaks down starches (to maltose and other sugars)
    2. Stomach
      1. Background
        1. Stomach mucosa is exposed to low pH (HCl) and digestive enzymes (e.g. pepsin)
        2. Stomach mucosa is protected by mucus (from mucous neck cell) and bicarbonate (from epithelial cells)
      2. Pepsinogen
        1. Cleaves proteins to peptides
        2. Released by chief cell
        3. Activated to pepsin, triggered by Gastrin and Stomach acid
      3. Hydrochloric Acid (HCL)
        1. Breaks down starches
        2. Aids in mineral absorption and bacterocidal activity
        3. Released by parietal cells
        4. Triggered by Vagus Nerve, Gastrin, histamine and proteins within the Stomach
      4. Intrinsic Factor
        1. Facilitates Vitamin B12 absorption from Small Intestine
        2. Released by parietal cells
        3. Triggered by Stomach and duodenal distention
        4. Suppressed by low gastric pH and intestinal fat
      5. Gastrin
        1. Stimulates HCl acid secretion by parietal cells and enzyme secretion from Pancreas
        2. Also increases peristalsis and relaxes pyloric sphincter and ileocecal valve
        3. Released from Gastrin cells in Stomach antrum
        4. Stimulated by Vagus Nerve, duodenal distention and proteins within the Stomach
        5. Suppressed by secretin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and decreased Stomach pH
    3. Small Intestine
      1. Background
        1. Intestinal mucosa is protected by an alkaline mucus (from Brunner's Glands)
        2. Epithelial cells in Crypts of Lieberkuhn (within intestinal villi)
          1. Release most intestinal digestive enzymes (aside from Pancreatic Enzymes)
          2. Stimulated by Vagus Nerve and direct contact with food
      2. Carbohydrate digestion
        1. Maltase
          1. Cleaves maltose into two Glucose molecules
        2. Lactase
          1. Cleaves lactose into Glucose and galactose
        3. Sucrase
          1. Cleaves sucrose into Glucose and fructose
      3. Protein digestion
        1. Peptidases
          1. Cleaves peptides into amino acids
        2. Enterokinase
          1. Activates trypsinogen to trypsin
          2. Activates chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin
          3. Activates procarboxypolypetidase to carboxypolypetidase
      4. Fat and Cholesterol digestion
        1. Intestinal Lipase
          1. Metabolizes lipids to glycerol and Fatty Acids
        2. Intestinal esterases
          1. Metabolize Cholesterol esters to free Cholesterol and Fatty Acids
      5. Other enzymes
        1. Secretin
          1. Decreases Gastrin secretion
          2. Decreases intestinal motility
          3. Promotes bile acid secretion from liver
          4. Promotes bicarbonate secretion from Pancreas
        2. Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
          1. Decreases Gastrin secretion
          2. Decreases gastric emptying
        3. Cholecystokinin
          1. Decreases gastric motility
          2. Promotes Pancreatic Enzyme and bicarbonate secretion
          3. Promotes Gall Bladder contraction and sphincter of oddi relaxation (intestinal bile acid secretion)
          4. Vasodilates intestinal mucosa vessels
        4. Bulbogastrone
          1. Suppresses acid secretion from gastric parietal cells
    4. Pancreas
    5. Liver and Gallbladder
  4. Anatomy: Images
    1. giQuadrantsGrayBB1034.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. giQuadrantsGrayBB1220.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    3. giMarginsGrayBB1223.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    4. giMarginsGrayBB1224.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    5. giMarginsGrayBB1226.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    6. giAbdTrasverseXsL1GrayBB1097.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    7. giPeritoneumUpperAbdXsGrayBB1039.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    8. giPeritoneumLowAbdXsGrayBB1038.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  5. References
    1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmasters, Miami, p. 120-31

Abdomen (C0000726)

Definition (FMA) Subdivision of trunk proper which is demarcated from the thorax internally by the inferior surface of the sternocostal part of the diaphragm and externally by the costal margin, from the back of abdomen by the external surface of the posterior abdominal wall, from the perineum by the superior surface of the urogenital diaphragm and from the lower limbs by the inguinal folds; together with the thorax, and perineum, it constitutes the trunk proper. Examples: There is only one abdomen.
Definition (MSHCZE) Část těla, která leží mezi hrudníkem a pánví.
Definition (UWDA) Subdivision of trunk, which is demarcated from the thorax internally by the inferior surface of the sternocostal part of the diaphragm and externally by the costal margin, from the pelvis by the plane of the superior pelvic aperture and from the lower limbs by the inguinal folds; together with the thorax, pelvis, and perineum, it constitutes the trunk. Examples: There is only one abdomen.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Having to do with the abdomen, which is the part of the body between the chest and the hips that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.
Definition (NCI) Of, or related to, the abdomen.
Definition (MSH) That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Definition (CSP) portion of the body that lies between the thorax and the pelvis.
Concepts Body Location or Region (T029)
MSH D000005
SnomedCT 113345001, 277112006
HL7 ADB
LNC LP35080-8, LP6990-8, MTHU001425, LA12706-0, LA4238-7
English Abdomen, Abdomens, ABDOMEN, Abdominopelvis, Abdominopelvic region, abdominopelvic regions, abdomen, abd, abdominal, abdominopelvic region, Abdomen (volume), Abdomen, NOS, Abdominal, Abdominal structure, Abdominal (qualifier value), Abdominal structure (body structure)
Swedish Buk
Czech břicho, abdomen
Finnish Vatsa
Russian ZHIVOT, ЖИВОТ
Latvian Vēderdobums
Croatian ABDOMEN
Polish Brzuch, Narządy jamy brzusznej
Norwegian Abdomen, Buk
Portuguese Abdômen, Abdome
Spanish abdomen, abdominal, abdominal (calificador), estructura abdominal (estructura corporal), estructura abdominal, Abdomen
French Abdomen, Ventre
German Abdomen
Italian Addome
Dutch Abdomen, Buik
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Gastrointestinal system (C0012240)

Definition (MSHCZE) Skupina orgánů, která se podílí na rozkladu potravin během jejich cesty tělem, a to od ÚST až po ANUS (od asimilace živin až po odstranění zbytku), trávicí systém zahrnuje GASTROINTESTINÁLNÍ TRAKT a příslušné žlázy (JÁTRA, ŽLUČOVÉ ÚSTROJÍ, SLINIVKA).
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The organs that take in food and turn it into products that the body can use to stay healthy. Waste products the body cannot use leave the body through bowel movements. The digestive system includes the salivary glands, mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, small and large intestines, and rectum.
Definition (NCI) The system that includes the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The system that includes the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. (NCI)
Definition (NAN) Excretion and expulsion of waste products from the bowel
Definition (MSH) A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Definition (CSP) system consists of the gastrointestinal tract, a tube extending from the mouth to the anus; its purpose is to break down food, prepare it for absorption and eliminate waste.
Definition (CSP) group of organs stretching from the mouth to the anus, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste; in humans, the digestive system includes the gastrointestinal tract (mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, anus) and the accessory glands (liver, biliary tract, pancreas), and associated hormones and secretions.
Concepts Body System (T022)
MSH D004064
SnomedCT 373871007, 86762007
LNC LP7256-3, MTHU001048
English Digestive System, Gastrointestinal system (body structure), Digestive structure (body structure), Structure of digestive system, Digestive structure, Structure of digestive system (body structure), GIS - Gastrointestinal system, Alimentary system, Systema digestorium, alimentary system, digestive systems, digestive system, gastrointestinal system, Ailmentary System, Alimentary System, GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM, Digestive system, Gastrointestinal system, Digestive system, NOS, Gastrointestinal System, Body System, Gastrointestinal, Gastrointestinal Body System, Gastrointestinal Organ System, Organ System, Gastrointestinal
French Appareil digestif, Système digestif
Swedish Matsmältningssystemet
Spanish estructura del aparato digestivo (estructura corporal), estructura digestiva (estructura corporal), aparato gastrointestinal (estructura corporal), estructura digestiva, estructura del aparato digestivo, Aparato Digestivo, sistema digestivo, Sistema Digestivo
Czech trávicí systém
Finnish Ruuansulatusjärjestelmä
Italian Sistema digerente, Apparato digerente
Russian PISHCHEVARITEL'NAIA SISTEMA, ПИЩЕВАРИТЕЛЬНАЯ СИСТЕМА
Japanese 消化腺, 胃腸系, 消化器系
Croatian PROBAVNI SUSTAV
Latvian Gremošanas sistēma
Polish Układ trawienny, Narząd trawienny, Układ pokarmowy
Norwegian Fordøyelsessystemet
Portuguese Aparelho Digestivo, Sistema Digestivo, Sistema Digestório
German Verdauungssystem
Dutch Maag-darmkanaal, Maag-darmsysteem, Spijsverteringskanaal, Spijsverteringssysteem, Systeem, spijsverterings-
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Gastrointestinal tract structure (C0017189)

Definition (MSHCZE) Obecně odkazuje na části trávicího systému táhnoucí se od ÚST až po ANUS, ale nezahrnuje související žlázové orgány. (JÁTRA, ŽLUČOVÉ ÚSTROJÍ, SLINIVKA) R
Definition (SCTSPA) Esófago, estómago, intestino delgado e intestino grueso considerados en conjunto como una entidad única
Definition (SCTSPA) El tracto digestivo completo, incluidos la boca, el esófago, el estómago y los intestinos
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) Esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine together as a single entity
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) Entire digestive tract including mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is comprised of mouth, pharynx, esophagus and stomach while the lower GI tract consists of intestines and anus. The primary function of the GI tract is to ingest, digest, absorb and ultimately excrete food stuff. (NCI)
Definition (NCI) The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is comprised of mouth, pharynx, esophagus and stomach while the lower GI tract consists of intestines and anus. The primary function of the GI tract is to ingest, digest, absorb and ultimately excrete food stuff.
Definition (MSH) Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Concepts Body System (T022)
MSH D041981
SnomedCT 122865005, 51289009
LNC MTHU030134
English Gastrointest tract structure, Gut, alimentary tract, digestive canal, GI tract, Gastro-intestinal system, Gastrointestinal system, alimentary canal, digestive tube, digestive tracts, gi tract, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, alimentary tracts, gastrointestinal tracts, digestive tract, gastrointestinal tract, GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, Gastrointestinal Tract, Digestive Tracts, Digestive Tract, GI Tracts, GI Tract, Gastrointestinal Tracts, Gastrointestinal tract, Digestive tract structure (body structure), Digestive tract structure, Digestive tract, Gastrointestinal tract structure (body structure), Alimentary tract, Gastrointestinal tract structure, Alimentary tract, NOS, Digestive tract, NOS, Gastrointestinal tract, NOS, Alimentary Canal
French Tube digestif, Tractus gastro-intestinal, Voies digestives, Tractus digestif, Voies gastro-intestinales
Swedish Mag-tarmsystemet
Spanish estructura del aparato digestivo (estructura corporal), estructura del aparato digestivo, Tubo Digestivo, Aparato Gastrointestinal, conducto gastrointestinal, estructura del tracto digestivo (estructura corporal), estructura del tracto digestivo, estructura del tracto gastrointestinal (estructura corporal), estructura del tracto gastrointestinal, tubo digestivo, Tracto Digestivo, Tracto Gastrointestinal
Czech trávicí trakt, gastrointestinální trakt, GIT
Finnish Maha-suolikanava
Italian Tratto GI, Tratto digestivo, Tubo gastrointestinale, Tratto gastrointestinale
Russian ZHELUDOCHNO-KISHECHNYI TRAKT, PISHCHEVARITEL'NYI TRAKT, ЖЕЛУДОЧНО-КИШЕЧНЫЙ ТРАКТ, ПИЩЕВАРИТЕЛЬНЫЙ ТРАКТ
Croatian GASTROINTESTINALNI TRAKT, PROBAVNI TRAKT
Latvian Kuņģa-zarnu trakts, Gremošanas trakts, Kuņģa un zarnu trakts
Polish Przewód pokarmowy
Japanese 胃腸管, 消化管
Norwegian Gastrointestinaltraktus, GI-traktus, Mage-tarm-kanalen, Fordøyelseskanalen
Portuguese Trato Gastrintestinal, Tubo Digestivo, Trato Digestivo, Tubo Digestório, Aparelho Gastrointestinal, Trato Digestório, Trato Gastrointestinal
German Verdauungstrakt, Gastrointestinaltrakt
Dutch Maagdarmkanaal, Spijsverteringskanaal
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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