Ophthalmology Book

//fpnotebook.com/

Neurologic Anatomy of the Eye

Aka: Neurologic Anatomy of the Eye, Eye Neurologic Anatomy, Visual System Structure, Visual Pathway, Optic Chiasm, Optic Tract, Lateral Geniculate Body, Optic Radiation, Visual Field, Vision
  1. See Also
    1. Eye Anatomy
    2. Extraocular Movement
    3. Neuroanatomy
    4. Eye Neurologic Exam
    5. Eye Anatomy
    6. Oculocephalic Reflex
    7. Nystagmus
    8. Eye Deviation
    9. Pupillary Light Reflex
  2. Background
    1. Vision is among the most complex neurologic functions of the human body
    2. Eye is a high-end camera
      1. Mechanisms to adjust aperture (pupil size) and focal length (lens shape)
      2. Projected onto a more than 500 Megapixel Retina
        1. Contains over 120 Million rods (black and white) and 6 Million cones (color Vision)
    3. One third of the Cranial Nerves (CN 2, 3, 4, 6) are dedicated to Vision, Extraocular Movement and pupillary reflex
    4. Most of the Occipital Lobe is dedicated to the processing of visual input
  3. Anatomy: Visual Pathway
    1. Background
      1. Visual Field Overview
        1. visualFieldDefects.jpg
      2. Objects in the Visual Field are projected onto each eye's Retina as a mirror image
        1. Upper right Visual Field localizes to the lower left Retina of each eye
      3. Signals from each Retina follow the Optic Nerve to the Optic Chiasm, in the region of the Pituitary Gland
        1. Left Visual Field signals from each Retina (left medial and right lateral) join at Optic Chiasm
        2. Left Visual Field signals follow the Optic Nerve to the right Lateral Geniculate Body
        3. Right Lateral Geniculate Body signals follow right Optic Radiations
          1. Upper Visual Fields through the Temporal Lobe
          2. Lower Visual Fields through the Parietal Lobe)
        4. Signals terminate in the right Occipital Lobe visual cortex (Brodmann Area 17-19)
        5. Right Visual Fields are similarly routed to the left Occipital Lobe
    2. Light Pathway
      1. Light is refracted from Cornea and lens through pupil onto the Retina
      2. Light Refraction: Human eye refracts light at two locations
        1. See Refractive Error
        2. Cornea (66% of eye's focusing power)
          1. Fixed focusing power
          2. Non-Refractive Errors (e.g. Cataracts, Corneal opacities) may disrupt light pathway
        3. Crystalline lens (33% of eye's focusing power)
          1. Accommodation changes lens shape to focus objects
      3. Pupil is analogous to a camera aperture
        1. Shutter aperture decreases in size under bright light conditions and for sharper focus
        2. Pupil constricts under bright light and with near focus (e.g. reading) known as accomodation
    3. Retina (each eye)
      1. Components
        1. Fovea (central, highest resolution region of Macula)
        2. Peripheral Macula
      2. Pathway
        1. Retina representation of Visual Fields is flipped backwards
          1. Right Visual Field is projected onto the left half of the Retina
          2. Left Visual Field is projected onto the right half of the Retina
        2. Retina representation of Visual Fields is inverted upside down
          1. Superior Visual Field is projected onto the inferior Retina
          2. Inferior Visual Field is projected onto the superior Retina
      3. Visual Field deficits
        1. Scotomata
        2. Glaucoma (peripheral Vision Loss)
    4. Optic Nerve (each eye)
      1. Components
        1. Left Retinal fibers (view right Visual Field)
        2. Right Retinal fibers (view left Visual Field)
      2. Pathway
        1. Optic Nerve fibers from the Retina lateral to the fovea course to the ipsilateral brain
        2. Optic Nerve fibers from the Retina medial to the fovea course to the contralateral brain
      3. Visual Field deficits
        1. Complete loss of Vision from affected eye
        2. Example: Left Optic Nerve lesion results in complete blindness of the left eye, but the right eye is unaffected
    5. Optic Chiasm (central, near pituitary)
      1. Components
        1. Left Retinal fibers (right Visual Field) join from each eye, forming Optic Tract to left Cerebral Hemisphere
        2. Right Retinal fibers (left Visual Field) join from each eye, forming Optic Tract to right Cerebral Hemisphere
      2. Visual Field deficits
        1. Bilateral loss of lateral Visual Fields
        2. Example: The left eye cannot see the left Visual Field and the right eye cannot see the right Visual Field
    6. Optic Tract (each hemisphere)
      1. Components
        1. Left Optic Tract
        2. Right Optic Tract
      2. Visual Field deficits
        1. Vision Loss in each eye of the contralateral Visual Field
        2. Example: Left Optic Tract lesion results in a right sided Visual Field cut for each eye
    7. Lateral Geniculate Body (each hemisphere)
    8. Optic Radiation (each hemisphere)
      1. Components
        1. Parietal Lobe Optic Radiation
          1. Transmits superior Retina signals to Occipital Lobe above the calcarine fissure
        2. Temporal Lobe Optic Radiation
          1. Transmits inferior Retina signals to Occipital Lobe below the calcarine fissure
      2. Visual Field deficits
        1. Affected Optic Radiation results in a quarter segment Vision Loss
        2. Example: Left Parietal Optic Radiation defect results in a right upper Visual Field cut
    9. Occipital Lobe (each hemisphere)
      1. Components
        1. Foveal (central Retina) is represented in the posterior Occipital Lobe
        2. Peripheral Retina is represented in the more anterior Occipital Lobe
      2. Visual Field deficits
        1. Affected Occipital Lobe results in a quarter segment Vision Loss
          1. Central Vision (posterior Occipital Lobe)
          2. Peripheral Vision (anterior Occipital Lobe)
        2. Example: Left posterior occiput lesion above the calcarine fissure
          1. Results in a right upper, central Visual Field cut
  4. Anatomy: Images
    1. See Extraocular Movement
    2. See Retinal Anatomy
    3. Nerves
      1. eyeOpticNervesGrayBB763.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      2. eyeOpticNerveGrayBB773.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      3. eyeOpticNervesGrayBB774.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      4. eyeNervesSupOrbitalFissureGrayBB787.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      5. eyeNervesGrayBB776.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      6. eyeNervesGrayBB777.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      7. neuroOpticTractsGrayBB722.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      8. neuroEyeSypatheticGrayBB840.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
      9. eye_eom.png
      10. EyePupillaryReactionNeuroPath.png
      11. EyePupillaryReaction.png
  5. References
    1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 40-54
    2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 114, 126

Optic Chiasms (C0029126)

Definition (FMA) Nerve trunk which is continuous with right and left optic nerves and right and left optic tracts.
Definition (NCI) An anatomic structure formed by the crossing of the two optic nerves under the hypothalamus.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) An anatomy term for an X-shaped crossing (for example, of nerves or tendons).
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The place in the brain where some of the optic nerve fibers coming from one eye cross optic nerve fibers from the other eye.
Definition (MSH) The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Definition (CSP) hypothalamic structure formed by the crossing of optic nerve fibers from the medial half of each retina.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D009897
SnomedCT 244453006, 59098004
English Optic Chiasma, Chiasm, Optic, Chiasms, Optic, Optic Chiasm, Optic Decussation, Chiasma Opticum, Chiasma Opticums, Chiasma, Optic, Chiasmas, Optic, Decussation, Optic, Decussations, Optic, Optic Chiasmas, Optic Decussations, Opticum, Chiasma, Opticums, Chiasma, optic decussation, Decussation of optic nerve fibers, optic chiasma, decussation of optic nerve fibers, ox, optic chiasm, optic chiasm (Rufus of Ephesus), Chiasma nervorum opticorum, Chiasma, Chiasma opticum, chiasma, Optic chiasm, Optic chiasma, Optic nerve chiasma, Optic chiasma (body structure), Optic nerve chiasma (body structure), Optic Chiasms
French Chiasma des nerfs optiques, Chiasma optique
Swedish Synnervskorsning
Czech chiasma opticum
Finnish Näköhermoristi
Italian Chiasma opticum, Decussazione ottica, Chiasma ottico
Russian ZRITEL'NYI PEREKREST, PLASTINCHATOE TM, ZRITEL'NYKH NERVOV PEREKREST, CHIASMA OPTICUM, ЗРИТЕЛЬНЫЙ ПЕРЕКРЕСТ, ЗРИТЕЛЬНЫХ НЕРВОВ ПЕРЕКРЕСТ, ПЛАСТИНЧАТОЕ TM
Japanese 視交叉, 視交差, 視神経交叉, 視神経交差
Croatian OPTIČKA HIJAZMA
Latvian Redzes krustojums, Redzes nervu krustojums
Polish Skrzyżowanie wzrokowe
Norwegian Synsnervekrysning, Chiasma opticum
Spanish quiasma del nervio óptico (estructura corporal), quiasma del nervio óptico, quiasma óptico (estructura corporal), quiasma óptico, Chiasma Opticum, Quiasma Óptico
German Chiasma opticum, Sehnervenkreuzung
Dutch Chiasma opticum
Portuguese Quiasma Óptico
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Vision Disorders (C0042790)

Definition (MSH) Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Definition (NCI) Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from eye diseases, optic nerve diseases, visual pathway diseases, occipital lobe diseases, ocular motility disorders' and other conditions.(from MeSH)
Definition (PSY) Disorders involving the visual system, including visual neural pathways.
Definition (CSP) visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision; may result from eye diseases, optic nerve diseases, visual pathway diseases, occipital lobe diseases, ocular motility disorders, etc; visual disability refers to inability of the individual to perform specific visual tasks, such as reading, writing, orientation, or traveling unaided.
Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D014786
SnomedCT 40031005, 95677002, 128127008, 7973008
English VISION DISORDERS, Vision disorders, vision disorder, Visual Field Disorder, Vision Disorders, VISION DIS, visual system disorder, Disorder sight, Vision Disorders [Disease/Finding], disorders visions, vision dysfunction, visual disorder, Dysfunction;vision, disorders sight, disorders vision, vision disorders, disorders visual, Disorder, Visual, Visual Disorders, Disorders, Visual, Visual disorder, Disorder of Visual System, Visual System Disorder, Disorder of vision (disorder), Disorder of vision, Vision disorder, Visual system disorder (disorder), Visual system disorder, disorder; visual, visual; disorder, Disorder of vision, NOS, Vision disorder, NOS, Vision Disorder, Visual Disorder, visual dysfunction
Spanish TRASTORNOS DE LA VISION, Trastorno de la vista, trastorno visual, Trastornos Visuales, trastorno de la visión (trastorno), trastorno de la visión, trastorno del sistema visual (trastorno), trastorno del sistema visual, Trastornos de la visión, Trastornos de la Visión
German SEHSTOERUNGEN, Erkrankungen der Sehkraft, Sehstoerung, Sehstörungen
Italian Patologie della vista, Disturbo della vista, Disturbi della visione
Swedish Synstörningar
Japanese シカクショウガイ, 昼盲症, 昼盲, 視力障害, 視覚障害
Finnish Näköhäiriöt
Russian ZRENIIA RASSTROISTVA, GEMERALOPIIA, SLEPOTA DNEVNAIA, ГЕМЕРАЛОПИЯ, ЗРЕНИЯ РАССТРОЙСТВА, СЛЕПОТА ДНЕВНАЯ
French APPAREIL VISUEL, Trouble de la vue, Troubles de la vision, Troubles visuels
Portuguese DISTURBIOS DA VISAO, Perturbação da visão, Distúrbios Visuais, Transtornos Visuais, Distúrbios da Visão, Alterações da visão, Transtornos da Visão
Czech Poruchy zraku, Porucha zraku, poruchy vidění, zrak - poruchy, poruchy zraku
Dutch aandoening gezichtsvermogen, stoornis; visueel, visueel; stoornis, visusstoornissen, Stoornis, visus-, Stoornissen, visus-, Visusstoornis, Visusstoornissen
Croatian VIDNE SMETNJE
Polish Ślepota dzienna, Zaburzenia widzenia
Hungarian Látás betegségei, Látás rendellenesség
Norwegian Synsskader, Synsforstyrrelser
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Visual Fields (C0042826)

Definition (MSH) The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Definition (CSP) the area within which stimuli will produce the sensation of sight with the eye in a straight ahead position.
Concepts Spatial Concept (T082)
MSH D014794
SnomedCT 363982002, 271729008, 73750009
English Field, Visual, Fields, Visual, Visual Fields, field visual, fields visual, visual fields, visual field, Feature of visual field, Feature of visual field (observable entity), Visual field (observable) (observable entity), Visual fields, Visual field, VF - Visual field, Visual field, NOS, Visual field (function), Visual field (observable), Visual Field, Visual field (observable entity), Visual field, function (observable entity)
Swedish Synfält
Czech zraková pole
Finnish Näkökentät
Russian ZRENIE, POLIA ZRENIIA, POLIA ZRENIIA, ПОЛЯ ЗРЕНИЯ, ЗРЕНИЕ, ПОЛЯ ЗРЕНИЯ
French Champs visuels, Champ visuel
Croatian VIDNA POLJA
Polish Pole widzenia
Spanish característica del campo visual, característica del campo visual (entidad observable), campo visual (entidad observable), campo visual (función), campo visual, Campos Visuales
Norwegian Synsfelt
German Gesichtsfelder
Italian Campi visivi
Dutch Gezichtsveld
Portuguese Campos Visuais
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


lateral geniculate complex (C0086526)

Definition (NCI) The lateral of a pair of small oval masses that protrude slightly from the posteroinferior aspect of the thalamus; commonly considered a part of the metathalamus.
Definition (CSP) mass composed of lateral geniculate nucleus, located lateral to the medial geniculate body, and serving as the thalamic center for the visual system.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D005829
SnomedCT 64275003, 279110005
English Geniculate Bodies, Lateral, Geniculate Body, Lateral, Lateral Geniculate Bodies, Lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN - Lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN - Lateral genicul nucleus, Lateral geniculate complex, corpus geniculatum laterale, LGB, lateral geniculate nucleus, lateral geniculate body, Nucleus corporis geniculati lateralis, Corpus geniculatus lateralis, Nucleus geniculatus lateralis, Corpus geniculatum laterale, Lateral geniculate nucleus (body structure), Nucleus Geniculatus Lateralis Dorsalis, Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, Geniculate Nucleus, Lateral, Nucleus Geniculatus Lateralis Pars Dorsalis, Nucleus, Lateral Geniculate, lateral geniculate complex, Lateral geniculate body, Lateral geniculate body structure (body structure), Lateral geniculate body structure, External Geniculate Body, Lateral Geniculate Body
Spanish núcleo geniculado lateral, Cuerpo Geniculado Lateral, núcleo geniculado externo, núcleo geniculado externo (estructura corporal), cuerpo geniculado lateral, estructura del cuerpo geniculado lateral (estructura corporal), estructura del cuerpo geniculado lateral
Portuguese Corpo Geniculado Lateral
French Corps géniculé latéral, Corps genouillé latéral
German Corpus geniculatum laterale
Norwegian Corpus geniculatum laterale
Italian Corpo genicolato laterale
Dutch Laterale corpora geniculata
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Optic tract structure (C0152405)

Definition (FMA) Nerve trunk which is continuous with the optic chiasm and the lateral geniculate nucleus.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The nerves that travel from the optic chiasm (place in the brain where some of the optic nerve fibers cross) into certain parts of the brain involved in vision.
Definition (MSH) Nerve fiber originating from the OPTIC CHIASM that connects predominantly to the LATERAL GENICULATE BODIES. It is the continuation of the VISUAL PATHWAY that conveys the visual information originally from the RETINA to the optic chiasm via the OPTIC NERVES.
Definition (PSY) Portion of the optic pathway that extends posteriorly from the optic chiasm in two nerve fiber bundles to synapse near the superior colliculi and in the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus.
Definition (CSP) bundle of nerve fibers of the visual system from the optic chiasm to the lateral geniculate nucleus, with some fibers synapsing in the midbrain for reflex connections.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D014795, D065866
SnomedCT 53238003
French Faisceau optique, Tractus optique
English OT - Optic tract, Optic lemniscus, optic tracts, optic tract, optic lemniscus, opt, Tractus optici, Tractus opticus, Tract, Optic, Tracts, Optic, Tractus Optici, Optici, Tractus, Tractus Opticus, Optic Tract, Opticus, Tractus, Optic Tracts, Optic tract, Optic tract structure (body structure), Optic tract structure
Portuguese Trato Óptico
Spanish Tracto Óptico, estructura de la vía óptica (estructura corporal), estructura de la vía óptica, vía óptica
German Tractus opticus
Italian Tratto ottico
Norwegian Tractus opticus
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Structure of optic radiation (C0228277)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 70105001
English Gratiolet's radiation, optic radiations, geniculostriate pathway, optic radiation, geniculocalcarine tract, geniculocalcarine radiation, visual radiation, Radiatio optica, Radiatio geniculo-calcarina, Geniculocalcarine tract, Optic radiation, Structure of optic radiation (body structure), Structure of optic radiation
Spanish estructura de la radiación óptica (estructura corporal), estructura de la radiación óptica, radiación óptica, tracto geniculocalcarino
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Visual pathway structure (C0459803)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 280951005
English Visual pathway structure, Visual pathway structure (body structure)
Spanish estructura de la vía visual (estructura corporal), estructura de la vía visual, vía visual
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Visual system structure (C0587900)

Definition (SCTSPA) Las vías de inervación del ojo, los anexos oculares, las vías visuales aferentes, las vías visuales eferentes y la pupila
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) The eye, ocular adnexa, afferent visual pathways, efferent visual pathways, and pupil innervation pathways
Concepts Anatomical Structure (T017)
SnomedCT 49549006
English Structure of visual system (body structure), Structure of visual system, Visual system structure (body structure), Visual structure, Visual system structure, Visual structure (body structure)
Spanish estructura visual (estructura corporal), estructura del aparato visual, estructura del aparato visual (estructura corporal), estructura de sistema visual, estructura visual
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


You are currently viewing the original 'fpnotebook.com\legacy' version of this website. Internet Explorer 8.0 and older will automatically be redirected to this legacy version.

If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Another, mobile version is also available which should function on both newer and older web browsers.

Please Contact Me as you run across problems with any of these versions on the website.

Navigation Tree