Endocrinology Book


Obesity Surgery

Aka: Obesity Surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y Intestino-Biliary Bypass, Jejunoileal Bypass, Gastric Sleeve, Sleeve Gastrectomy, Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy, Vertical Banded Gastroplasty, Distal Gastric Bypass, Biliopancreatic Diversion, Gastric Bypass, Gastroplasty, Bariatric Surgery, Metabolic Surgery
  1. See Also
    1. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding
    2. Obesity Management
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Incidence
      1. In 2013 US: 179,000 bariatric surgeries were performed (42% Gastric Sleeve and 34% Roux-en-Y bypass)
      2. In 2017 US: 228,00 bariatric surgeries were performed (60% Gastric Sleeve, 18% Roux-en-Y bypass)
      3. In 2019, U.S. 256,000 bariatric surgeries were performed (60% Gastric Sleeve, 18% Roux-en-Y bypass)
  3. Indications: Obesity
    1. Body Mass Index (BMI) >= 40 kg/m2 (Class 3 Obesity)
    2. Body Mass Index (BMI) >= 35 kg/m2 (Class 2 Obesity) with Obesity-related severe comorbidity
      1. Primary comorbidity indications
        1. Type II Diabetes Mellitus or Prediabetes
        2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
        3. Cardiomyopathy
        4. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NASH)
        5. Debilitating Lower Extremity Arthritis (e.g. Osteoarthritis of the hip or knee)
        6. Hypertension
        7. Hyperlipidemia
        8. Urinary Stress Incontinence
      2. Other conditions for which the procedure may be considered
        1. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
        2. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
        3. Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux disease
        4. Severe Venous Stasis
        5. Obesity-related impaired mobility
        6. Significantly impaired quality of life
    3. Body Mass Index (BMI) >= 30 kg/m2 (Class 1 Obesity)
      1. Diabetes Mellitus with inadequate glycemic control despite optimal lifestyle and medical management
  4. Contraindications
    1. High risk cardiopulmonary disease
    2. Ongoing Drug Abuse, Alcohol Abuse or other uncontrolled mental health disorder
    3. Reversible pathologic causes of Obesity (e.g. endocrine disorder)
    4. Poor insight into the risks, benefits, lifestyle investment, alternative options, or expected outcomes
  5. Mechanism
    1. Bariatric Surgery results in decreased sense of hunger, increased satiety and increased glycemic control
    2. Mechanisms go beyond restrictive (small Stomach) and malabsorption (small intestinal bypass) models
    3. Neuroendocrine responses to Bariatric Surgery play a key role in energy homeostasis
      1. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) increases Insulin secretion
      2. Peptide YY increases satiety and delays gastric emptying
      3. Insulin, gherlin, Leptin, c-rp, Interleukin-6, TNF-alpha and adiponectin are all affected by Bariatric Surgery
  6. Procedures: Common
    1. Images
      1. bariatricSurgery.jpg
    2. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)
      1. Accounted for 34% in 2013 and 18% in 2017 of Bariatric Surgery procedures in U.S.
      2. Gold standard method today
      3. Description
        1. Stomach partitioned into 20-60 ml pouch
        2. Pouch anastomosed to jejunum
        3. Remainder of Stomach and duodenum bypassed
          1. Intestine is bisected at ~100 cm from the pylorus
      4. Efficacy
        1. Weight loss >48% at 1-2 years, >53% at 3-6 years and >25% at 7-10 years
        2. Diabetes Mellitus remission occurs in 46-81% at 1-3 years
      5. Safety
        1. Perioperative mortality: 0.2 to 0.5% within 30 days (0.14 to 0.21% at >30 days)
        2. Mortality is reduced 30-50% compared to those who did not undergo surgery
      6. Disadvantages
        1. Malabsorption of iron, B12 and Calcium
        2. Technically difficult with higher morbidity
    3. Gastric Sleeve or Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (introduced in 2008)
      1. Accounted for 42% in 2013 and 60% in 2017 and 2019 of Bariatric Surgery procedures in U.S. (most common)
      2. Description
        1. Lateral Stomach excised leaving a smaller, narrow, tubular residual Stomach pouch
        2. Promising procedure introduced in 2008 with high efficacy
        3. Lower adverse effects (e.g. no dumping)
        4. May be used to bridge super-obese patients (BMI>50) to ultimately have Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
      3. Efficacy
        1. Weight loss >33% at 1-2 years and >46% at 3-6 years
        2. Diabetes Mellitus remission occurs in 80% at 1-3 years
      4. Safety
        1. Perioperative mortality: 0.296% within 30 days (0.11 to 0.34% at >30 days)
        2. Mortality is reduced 30-50% compared to those who did not undergo surgery
    4. Single Anastomosis Duodenal-Ileal Bypass with Sleeve (approved 2020)
      1. Description
        1. Combines Gastric Sleeve (as above) with bypass of the duodenum
        2. Proximal duodenum is anastomosed to the ileum (bypassing the duodenum and biliopancreatic limb)
        3. Performed at the same time of Gastric Sleeve or as a revision to prior Gastric Sleeve procedure
    5. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (introduced in 2006)
      1. Accounted for 14% in 2013 and <1% in 2019 of Bariatric Surgery procedures in U.S. (falling out of favor)
      2. Description
        1. Band applied around the distal esophagus or proximal Stomache
        2. Reversible and tension can be adjusted via subcutaneous port
        3. Replaces Vertical Banded Gastroplasty
      3. Efficacy
        1. Weight loss >29% at 1-2 years, >39% at 3-6 years and >14% at 7-10 years
        2. Diabetes Mellitus remission occurs in 28% at 1-3 years
      4. Safety
        1. Perioperative mortality: 0.02 to 0.07% within 30 days (0.21 to 0.50% at >30 days)
    6. Surgical Revisions
      1. Bariatric Surgery revision accounted for 6% in 2013 and 14% in 2017 of Bariatric Surgery procedures in U.S.
    7. Resources
      1. Estimate of Bariatric Surgery Numbers 2011-2018 (ASMBS)
        1. https://asmbs.org/resources/estimate-of-bariatric-surgery-numbers
  7. Procedures: Other procedures
    1. Intragastric Balloon
      1. Balloon inserted via endoscopy
      2. Reduces Stomach size after inflation
      3. Left in place for 6 months
    2. Biliopancreatic Diversion (introduced in 2004)
      1. Very effective in super-obese patients (BMI>50 kg/m)
      2. Weight loss 40% at 1 year and 30-40% at 10 years
  8. Procedures: Not recommended
    1. Jejunoileal Bypass (Distal Gastric Bypass)
      1. Less commonly performed since 1985 (with a few exceptions)
    2. Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG or Stomach stapling)
      1. Less commonly performed since 1989 due to low long-term efficacy
        1. Replaced by Adjustable Gastric Banding
      2. Efficacy
        1. At 3 years: 40-63% excess Weight Reduction
        2. At 10 years: 20% excess Weight Reduction
      3. Disadvantages
        1. Less effective than Roux-en-Y Procedure
        2. High surgical revision rate (41-45%)
          1. Due to high rate of staple dehiscence
          2. Once staple line opens, weight gain returns
        3. Higher risk of stricture or GERD
      4. Perioperative mortality: 0-1.0%
    3. These procedures not recommended by NIH panel
      1. Significantly higher risk of complications
  9. Evaluation: Postoperative complications
    1. See specific complications below
    2. High risk presentations
      1. Post-operative Fever (red flag)
      2. Tachycardia (red flag)
      3. Hypotension
      4. Tachypnea or Hypoxia
      5. Bleeding
      6. Vomiting with Abdominal Pain
    3. Approach
      1. Involve bariatric surgeon early in presentation to discuss evaluation and management strategy
      2. CT Abdomen (often indicated, but beware False Negatives)
        1. When performing CT Abdomen, consider CT chest for Pulmonary Embolism given similar presentations
        2. Exercise caution with oral Contrast Material due to small proximal pouch
    4. Avoid harmful measures
      1. Avoid NSAIDs, Aspirin, Plavix and other irritative agents
      2. Avoid Nasogastric Tube
        1. Risk of proximal pouch rupture
        2. Ineffective at decompression after most bariatric procedures
  10. Complications: Acute serious complications
    1. Perioperative Mortality
      1. Procedure Type
        1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB): 0.14 to 0.3% mortality
        2. Sleeve Gastrectomy: 0.08%
        3. Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD-DS): <0.3% mortality
        4. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB): 0.03% mortality
      2. Patient factors: Highest risk
        1. Body Mass Index (BMI) over 60 kg/m2: 3% mortality
        2. Age over 60 years: 1% mortality
      3. Patient factors: Additive risks (Mortality increases from 0.2% up to 2.4% if at least 4 criteria are present)
        1. Age over 45 years old
        2. Hypertension
        3. Male gender
        4. Pulmonary Embolism risk (DVT history, Pulmonary Hypertension, Obesity-related hypoventilation)
        5. Body Mass Index >50
    2. Thromboembolic complications
      1. See peri-operative Thromboembolism prophylaxis below
      2. Pulmonary Embolism is the most common cause of mortality following Bariatric Surgery
        1. Post-bariatric surgery Pulmonary Embolism is associated with a 20-30% mortality
      3. Portal Vein Thrombosis
        1. Gastric Sleeve is the most common surgical cause of Portal Vein Thrombosis
        2. Presents 7-10 days post-op with diffuse Abdominal Pain, Nausea, Vomiting, Leukocytosis
        3. Identified on CT Abdomen with contrast
        4. Emergent consult to Bariatric Surgery and Intervention Radiology
        5. Initially treated with Heparin (and in some cases catheter directed or systemic Thrombolytics)
        6. Swaminathan and Shoenberger in Herbert (2020) EM:Rap 20(7):13
    3. Anastomotic Leak (and secondary Sepsis)
      1. Leak at anastomosis or banding site
        1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
          1. Gastrojejunal anastomotic leak (high risk)
          2. Jejunojejunal anastomotic leak
        2. Sleeve Gastrectomy
          1. Staple line leak (high risk)
      2. Requires emergency evaluation
      3. Presentation
        1. Sepsis signs may initially be subtle
        2. Severe Abdominal Pain
        3. Fever
        4. Hypotensive shock
        5. Heart Rate over 120 associated with Abdominal Pain increases Specificity
          1. Tachycardia in first 72 hours after Bariatric Surgery should first be considered an anastomotic leak
      4. Evaluation
        1. CT Abdomen with contrast (only 60% sensitive)
          1. Consider CT Chest for Pulmonary Embolism at the same time (especially if Tachycardia is acute presentation)
            1. Anastomotic Leak and Pulmonary Embolism may present in similar fashion
        2. Urgent surgical Consultation
          1. May require exploration despite negative CT Abdomen
          2. Early intervention within first 24 hours improves outcomes
    4. Internal Hernia (occurs in up to 3% of retrocolic bypass procedures)
      1. See Internal Hernia
      2. Obtain CT Abomen with contrast
      3. Requires immediate surgical Consultation
    5. Bleeding
      1. Gastric pouch is the most common bleeding source
        1. Early: Staple Line
        2. Late: Peptic ulcer
      2. Management
        1. Stabilization as with other Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
        2. Hemodynamic instability may occur earlier due to reduced oral intake after Bariatric Surgery
        3. Upper endoscopy
          1. Requires endoscopy operator is skilled at navigating altered anatomy following Bariatric Surgery
  11. Complications: Short-term
    1. Small Bowel Obstruction
      1. Always consider Internal Hernia (see above)
      2. Avoid Nasogastric Tube (see above)
    2. Wound Infection
      1. Occurs up to 3 weeks after surgery
      2. Risk of developing Incisional Hernia
    3. Stomal stenosis
      1. Presentations
        1. Early satiety (more than expected)
        2. Upper Abdominal Pain
        3. Vomiting even with liquid meals
      2. Evaluate Upper gastrointestinal series
      3. Treat with dilatation via upper endoscopy
    4. Peptic ulcer at surgical anastomosis (marginal ulcer)
      1. Evaluate with upper endoscopy
      2. Avoid NSAIDs
    5. Constipation
      1. Maximize hydration (96 ounces clear fluid daily)
      2. Minimize Narcotic Analgesics post-operatively
      3. Avoid Bulk Laxatives after Gastric banding
        1. Risk of obstruction
  12. Complications: Long-term
    1. Small Bowel Obstruction
      1. See short-term complications and Internal Hernias above
    2. Cholelithiasis or Cholecystitis (30% of patients)
      1. Consider Cholecystectomy at time of Bariatric Surgery
    3. Nephrolithiasis related to Calcium Oxalate Stone formation
    4. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
    5. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
      1. More common with restrictive surgery (Sleeve Gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band)
    6. Malabsorption (Roux-en-Y Bypass, Duodenal Ileal Bypass with sleeve)
      1. See lab monitoring below
      2. See post-operative diet below
      3. Protein-calorie Malnutrition
      4. Fat malabsorption
      5. Lactose Intolerance
      6. Beef intolerance (due to heightened Sense of Taste and smell)
      7. Calcium malabsorption
      8. Micronutrient deficiency (Copper deficiency, Zinc Deficiency)
      9. Vitamin A Deficiency
      10. Anemia due to Vitamin Deficiency
        1. Iron Deficiency Anemia
        2. Folate Deficiency
        3. Vitamin B12 Deficiency
    7. Dumping Syndrome (40 to 60% of patients)
      1. May occur early or late following oral intake
        1. Early dumping is associated with rapid nutrient flow into the Small Bowel with Fluid Shifts
          1. Onset within one hour of eating
          2. Symptoms include Abdominal Pain, Diarrhea, bloating and Nausea
          3. May also cause Flushing, Palpitations, sweating, Tachycardia, Hypotension, Syncope
        2. Late dumping is associated with rapid Carbohydrate absorption and exaggerated Insulin response
          1. Results in Reactive Hypoglycemia onset 1 to 3 hours after eating
      2. Management
        1. Eat small frequent meals
        2. Avoid rapidly absorbed sugars (e.g. Simple Sugars)
        3. Avoid fluid with meals
        4. Consider Acarbose (Precose) to slow CarbohydrateDigestion
        5. Consider Somatostatin analog
        6. Surgical revision may be needed in some cases
      3. References
        1. Tack (2014) Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 28(4): 741-9 [PubMed]
    8. Overall body changes
      1. Hair thinning (due to rapid weight loss)
        1. Supplement with more Dietary Protein
        2. Consider Biotin
      2. Metrorrhagia
      3. Fatigue
      4. Fertility increases
        1. Use reliable Contraception to avoid pregnancy within first 2 years after surgery
        2. Food intolerance
          1. Lactose Intolerance
          2. Beef intolerance (due to Hypersensitivity to taste and smell)
    9. Altered medication absorption
      1. Gastric banding (gastric restriction)
        1. Consider switch from XR to immediate release agents
        2. Take one medication at a time
      2. Gastric Bypass
        1. Monitor Digoxin and Levothyroxine dosing closely
        2. Exercise caution when using Azole Antifungals
    10. Bacterial overgrowth
      1. Presents with Abdominal Distention, Proctitis, nighttime Diarrhea, and Arthralgias
    11. Panus (84% of patients)
      1. Results in local skin irritation, fungal infections and discomfort during Exercise
      2. Paniculectomy indications
        1. Refractory skin irritation
        2. Panus severe enough to cover genitalia
  13. Complications: Lap Band
    1. Adhesions with Bowel Obstruction
    2. Port-tubing complications
    3. Infected port-site with overlying Cellulitis
    4. Band prolapse
      1. Presents as A band that is altered from its standard positioning
      2. Band is normally positioned at a 45 degree angle to the spine
    5. Band erosion
      1. Presents as Gastrointestinal Bleeding or Abdominal Pain
      2. Diagnosis with upper endoscopy
    6. Band too tight
      1. May present with pain and Vomiting
      2. Consider gastrograffin upper GI study or CT Abdomen with contrast
      3. Consider band deflation (especially if Vomiting and pain)
        1. Aspirate 4-14 cc fluid from subcutaneous port with a Huber needle
  14. Efficacy
    1. Bariatric Surgery is associated with substantial weight loss
      1. Average of 57 lbs (26 kg) MORE weight loss than non-surgical management
      2. Total weight loss of 66 to 110 lbs (30 to 50 kg) or 60-70% of excess weight loss (20-30% of total weight)
      3. BMI decreases 11 to 17 kg/m2
      4. Gloy (2013) BMJ 347: f5934 [PubMed]
    2. Bariatric Surgery may cure diabetes in morbid Obesity
      1. Rubino (2002) Ann Surg 236:554-9 [PubMed]
    3. Significantly reduces morbidity and mortality
      1. Diabetes Mellitus 76% resolved or improved (5 times more likely than in non-surgical management)
      2. Total and LDL Cholesterol was significantly reduced
      3. Hypertension resolved in 61% (improved in 78%)
      4. Sleep Apnea resolved or improved in 83%
      5. Mortality over 9 years reduced from 28% to 9%
      6. Buchwald (2004) JAMA 292:1724-37 [PubMed]
  15. Labs: Monitoring schedule post-procedure
    1. Three months after surgery
      1. Complete Blood Count
      2. Blood Glucose
      3. Serum Creatinine
    2. Six months after surgery
      1. Complete Blood Count
      2. Blood Glucose
      3. Serum Creatinine
      4. Serum Calcium
      5. Liver Function Tests
      6. Serum Protein
      7. Serum Albumin
      8. Serum Ferritin
      9. Serum Vitamin B12
      10. Serum Folic Acid
    3. Nine months after surgery
      1. Complete Blood Count
      2. Blood Glucose
      3. Serum Creatinine
    4. One year after surgery and then every year therafter
      1. Complete Blood Count
      2. Blood Glucose
      3. Serum Creatinine
      4. Serum Ferritin
      5. Serum Vitamin B12
      6. Serum Vitamin D
      7. Serum Vitamin A
      8. Other labs to consider
        1. Serum Thiamine
        2. Serum Copper
        3. Serum Zinc
        4. Serum Magnesium
        5. Serum Vitamin B6
  16. Labs: Preoperative evaluation (varies by surgery group protocol)
    1. Comprehensive metabolic panel (renal and hepatic panel)
    2. Complete Blood Count with Platelets
    3. Coagulation studies (INR and PTT)
    4. Hemoglobin A1C
    5. Fasting lipid panel
    6. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    7. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D)
    8. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
    9. Vitamin B9 (Folate)
    10. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
    11. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
    12. Iron Studies (Serum Iron, TIBC, Serum Ferritin)
    13. Urinalysis
    14. Urine Pregnancy Test (in all women of child-bearing age with a Uterus)
    15. Chest XRay
    16. Electrocardiogram
    17. Consider RUQ Ultrasound, upper endoscopy, H. pylori testing
  17. Management: Pre-operative Evaluation
    1. Preoperative bariatric evaluation is identical to that in non-obese, non-Bariatric Surgery patients
      1. See Preoperative Exam
      2. Exceptions: Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Venous Thromboembolism
      3. Weight loss history and surgery justification is generally completed well before preoperative evaluation
      4. Encourage Tobacco Cessation to improve healing
      5. Complete appropriate cancer screening (for age, gender) before surgery
      6. Evaluation involves a team (primary provider, surgeon, nutritionist, behavioral health)
    2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (not yet evaluated)
      1. Uncontrolled Sleep Apnea is a significant risk factor for anastomotic leak
      2. Obstructive Sleep ApneaPrevalence approaches 75% of patients pursuing Bariatric Surgery
      3. Delay procedure for Sleep Apnea evaluation with formal polysomonography
        1. If positive for Sleep Apnea, start CPAP and delay surgery for 4 weeks
    3. Venous Thromboembolism prophylaxis
      1. Common (1-3%) and a leading cause of mortality following Bariatric Surgery
      2. Risk Factors
        1. Body Mass Index >60 kg/m2
        2. Chronic Leg Edema
        3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
        4. Prior Thromboembolism
        5. Estrogens
          1. Discontinue Estrogen containing Oral Contraceptives 1 month (1 cycle) before surgery
          2. Discontinue Estrogen containing Hormone Replacement Therapy 1 month before surgery
      3. Best prophylactic strategy is unclear
        1. Removable IVC Filters are commonly used in high risk patients (but inadequate evidence)
      4. Reasonable strategy
        1. Well-fitted Compression Stockings
        2. Early ambulation
        3. Enoxaparin 30 mg bid (40 mg bid if BMI>50)
        4. Consider removable IVC Filter for high risk patients
  18. Management: Diet post-operative
    1. Dietary changes to avoid over-distention and Vomiting
      1. Immediately after Gastric Bypass
        1. Start with clear liquids and gradually progress to regular foods over first 3 months
      2. Longterm
        1. Start meal with Protein portion to ensure adequate Protein intake (80-90 g/day total)
        2. Cut food into small bite size amounts (as if using toddler utensils)
        3. Chew well (to applesauce consistency) before Swallowing
        4. Eat slowly and without distraction (finish a meal within 30 minutes)
        5. Avoid drinking fluids 30 minutes before and 30-60 minutes after each meal (reduces satiety)
        6. Avoid carbonated beverages (gas forming)
        7. Identify fullness Sensation and stop eating immediately when you feel this
        8. Anticipate and avoid foods likely to be difficult to swallow (dry foods, bread, fibrous vegetables)
      3. Consider Acute Thiamine Deficiency (Wernicke's Encephalopathy) in acute confusional state presentations
        1. Empirically dose with 100-500 mg Thiamine IV at presentation
    2. Other dietary changes
      1. Limits foods with substantial simple Carbohydrates, Sorbitol or high fats (avoids dumping)
      2. Stay hydrated by taking 64 ounces non-caffeinated fluid and avoiding Alcohol
      3. Avoid carbonated beverages
    3. Vitamin Supplementation
      1. Multivitamin chewable once to twice daily (twice if status-post roux-en-y bypass)
      2. Vitamin B12 Supplementation (1000 mcg IM monthly or 1000 mcg orally daily)
      3. Calcium Citrate 1200 to 1500 mg daily (do not take within 2 hours of iron)
      4. Vitamin D 3000 IU daily (titrate to 25-Hydroxyvitamin D >30 ng/ml)
      5. Iron Supplementation 45-60 mg/day (may be higher in menstruating women)
      6. Maintain adequate Dietary Protein intake (see above)
      7. Additional supplements if deficiency identified (recheck monthly until normal)
        1. Thiamine 50 mg orally daily for 6 months
        2. Vitamin B6 50 mg orally daily
        3. Folate 1 mg orally daily
  19. Follow-up: Post-operative
    1. Continued education and reevaluation (quarterly in first year, annually thereafter)
      1. Includes dietician visits, nurse visits and surgical follow-up
      2. Assess weight, nutritional status, supplementation, symptoms and food intolerance at each visit
      3. Vitamin Supplementation, as well as nutritional and lab monitoring as above
    2. Imperative that patients continue life-long care
      1. Compliance with diet above
      2. Maintenance of regular physical Exercise program
      3. Continued behavioral methods to control food impulse
      4. Consider post-surgical support groups
    3. Monitoring of labs (see above)
    4. Pregnancy
      1. Delay pregnancy for >18-24 months post-procedure (higher risk of adverse outcomes)
        1. Use reliable Contraception during this time
      2. Supplement
        1. Protein: Additional extra 10 grams per day
        2. Vitamin B12: 1000 mcg sublingual weekly
        3. Folic Acid 800 mg orally daily
        4. Iron 325 mg orally daily
        5. Vitamin C 500 mg orally daily
        6. Calcium 1200 mg orally daily
        7. Prevent additional weight loss and expect weight gain during pregnancy
        8. Consider adjustment of band pressure
    5. Medications and Assorted Conditions
      1. General formulations and pill size
        1. Initial first 4 weeks after surgery
          1. Limit medication forms to liquids, crushable tablets or caplets that can be opened
        2. Longterm
          1. Limit medications to plain M&M size or smaller
          2. Avoid enteric coated, delayed-release or sustained release products
      2. Analgesics
        1. Acetaminophen is preferred
        2. Avoid NSAIDs due to peptic ulcer risk and anastomotic ulcers
          1. Surgeon may approve if absolutely unavoidable, combined with Proton Pump Inhibitor
      3. Medications requiring dose modification (or elimination) as weight loss occurs
        1. Antihypertensives
        2. AntiHyperlipidemics (e.g. Statins)
        3. Thyroid medications (e.g. Levothyroxine)
        4. Diabetes Medications
          1. Avoid agents associated with Hypoglycemia (e.g. Sulfonylureas)
      4. Osteoporosis (increased risk after Bariatric Surgery)
        1. Obtain DEXA Scan 2 years after surgery
        2. Avoid oral Bisphosphonates due to esophageal ulcer risk (at least in short term following Bariatric Surgery)
        3. Consider IV Reclast or Boniva instead if bisphosphonate needed
      5. Contraception
        1. Ensure reliable pregnancy prevention for at least 12-24 months after Obesity Surgery
        2. Roux-en-Y Bypass
          1. Use non-oral formulations (e.g. Mirena IUD)
        3. Restrictive procedures (Gastric banding)
          1. Oral Contraceptives are acceptable option
            1. However, risk of Venous Thromboembolism (Exercise caution)
          2. Avoid Ortho Evra patch or drospirenone OCPs due to increased VTE Risk
      6. Anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents
        1. Avoid DOACs (e.g. Eloquis, Xarelto)
        2. Warfarin levels are unstable in first 3-6 months (less Vitamin K, weight loss)
          1. Initial post-operative doses decrease, then increase to prior requirements
        3. Aspirin 81 mg for cardiovascular indications is safe
      7. Exercise caution with Alcohol
        1. Alcohol sensitivity increases significantly after surgery
        2. Avoid replacing Overeating with Problem Drinking
      8. Other conditions
        1. Consider gout prophylaxis
        2. Consider Gallstone prophylaxis
      9. References
        1. (2013) Presc Lett 20(12): 67-8
        2. Mechanick (2019) Endocr Pract 25(12): 1346-59 [PubMed]
  20. References
    1. Balsiger (2000) Mayo Clin Proc 75:673-80 [PubMed]
    2. Banerjee (2022) Am Fam Physician 105(6): 593-601 [PubMed]
    3. Buchwald (2004) JAMA 292:1724-37 [PubMed]
    4. Chang (2014) JAMA Surg 149(3): 275-87 [PubMed]
    5. Choban (1997) J Am Coll Surg 185:593-603 [PubMed]
    6. Virji (2006) Am Fam Physician 73:1403-8 [PubMed]
    7. Schroeder (2011) Am Fam Physician 84(7): 805-14 [PubMed]
    8. Schroeder (2016) Am Fam Physician 93(1):31-7 [PubMed]

Roux-en-Y Anastomosis (C0002804)

Definition (NCI) Gastric bypass procedure in which part of the stomach is closed off with staples, and part of the small intestine is bypassed. This procedure is performed in severely obese patients, for permanent weight loss.
Definition (MSH) A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D000713
ICD10 970
SnomedCT 257747009
English Anastomoses, Roux-en-Y, Anastomosis, Roux en Y, Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y, Diversion, Roux-en-Y, Diversions, Roux-en-Y, Loop, Roux-en-Y, Loops, Roux-en-Y, Roux en Y Anastomosis, Roux en Y Diversion, Roux en Y Loop, Roux-en-Y Anastomoses, Roux-en-Y Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y Diversion, Roux-en-Y Diversions, Roux-en-Y Loop, Roux-en-Y Loops, ROUX EN Y, Roux-en-Y - action, Roux-en-Y, roux-en-Y anastomosis, Roux-en-Y bypass, roux en y anastomosis, roux-en-y anastomoses, roux en y, bypass roux-en-y, roux-en-y bypass, roux-en-y, roux-en-y anastomosis, Roux-en-Y - action (qualifier value)
Spanish Y de Roux - acción, Y de Roux - acción (calificador), Y de Roux, Anastomosis en-Y de Roux, Asa en-Y de Roux, Derivación en-Y de Roux
Swedish Rouxanastomos
Czech Roux-en-Y anastomóza
Finnish Roux-en-Y-anastomoosi
Italian Deviazione intestinale a forma di Y, Ansa intestinale a forma di Y, Anastomosi intestinale a forma di Y
Japanese Roux-en-Y吻合術, ルーY係蹄, ルーY吻合, ルーY形腸吻合, ルーY形腸吻合術, ルーY転換, ルー式Y型胃腸吻合術, 吻合-ルーY, 吻合術-Roux-en-Y, 胃腸吻合術-ルー式Y型
French Anse en Y Roux, Dérivation de Roux-en-Y, Anastomose de Roux-en-Y, Anastomose chirurgicale de Roux-en-Y, Anse en Y de Roux
Polish Zespolenie metodą Roux-en-Y
Norwegian Roux-en-Y-anastomose, Rouxs Y-anastomose
German Anastomose, Roux-Y-, Roux-Y-Anastomose, Roux-Y-Schlinge, Roux-Y-Umleitung
Dutch Anastomose, Roux-en-Y-, Roux-en-Y-Anastomose
Portuguese Alça em-Y de Roux, Anastomose em-Y de Roux, Derivação em-Y de Roux
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Biliopancreatic Diversion (C0005435)

Definition (MSH) A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D015904
English Bilio Pancreatic Bypass, Bilio Pancreatic Bypasses, Bilio Pancreatic Diversion, Bilio Pancreatic Diversions, Bilio-Pancreatic Bypass, Bilio-Pancreatic Bypasses, Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion, Bilio-Pancreatic Diversions, Biliopancreatic Bypass, Biliopancreatic Bypasses, Biliopancreatic Diversion, Biliopancreatic Diversions, Bypass, Bilio-Pancreatic, Bypass, Biliopancreatic, Bypasses, Bilio Pancreatic, Bypasses, Bilio-Pancreatic, Bypasses, Biliopancreatic, Diversion, Bilio Pancreatic, Diversion, Bilio-Pancreatic, Diversions, Bilio Pancreatic, Diversions, Bilio-Pancreatic, Diversions, Biliopancreatic, Pancreatic Bypasses, Bilio, Pancreatic Diversion, Bilio, Pancreatic Diversions, Bilio, biliopancreatic bypass, biliopancreatic diversion, Biliopancreatic bypass
Dutch biliopancreatische bypass, Biliopancreatische bypass, Bypass, biliopancreatische
French Court-circuit biliopancréatique, Bypass biliopancréatique, Bypass bilio-pancréatique, Dérivation bilio-pancréatique, DBP (Dérivation BilioPancréatique), Dérivation biliopancréatique
German biliopankreatischer Bypass, Biliopankreatischer Bypass, Pankreatobiläre Umleitung
Portuguese Bypass biliopancreático, Derivação Biliopancreática, Desvio Biliopancreático
Spanish Derivación biliopancreática, Derivación Biliopancreática, Desviación Biliopancreática
Japanese 胆膵路バイパス, タンスイロバイパス, 胆膵路転換手術, 胆膵バイパス術, 胆膵消化回避術, バイパス術-胆膵, 胆膵バイパス
Swedish Biliopankreasavledning
Czech biliopankreatická diverze, Biliopancreatický bypass, biliopankreatický bypass, bilio-pankreatická diverze
Finnish Biliopankreaattinen diversio
Italian Deviazione bilio-pancreatica, Deviazioni bilio pancreatiche, Bypass bilio-pancreatico, Bypass biliopancreatico, Bypass bilio pancreatici, Deviazione biliopancreatica
Polish Odprowadzenie żółciowo-trzustkowe, Bypass żółciowo-trzustkowy, Wyłączenie żółciowo-trzustkowe
Hungarian Biliopancreaticus bypass
Norwegian Biliopakreatisk avledning, Galle-pancreas-bypass
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Gastroplasty (C0017193)

Definition (MSH) Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D015391
SnomedCT 9429009, 149361001, 149355004, 265867007
English Gastroplasties, Gastroplasty, Plastic repair with reconstruction of stomach, gastroplasty, Gastroplasty (procedure), GP - Gastroplasty, Plastic repair with reconstruction of stomach (procedure), Gastroplasty, NOS
Spanish cirugía plástica con reconstrucción del estómago, cirugía plástica con reconstrucción del estómago (procedimiento), gastroplastia, Gastroplastia
Swedish Gastroplastik
Czech gastroplastika, Gastroplastika, žaludek - bandáž, bandáž žaludku
Finnish Gastroplastia
Polish Plastyka żołądka
Dutch gastroplastiek, Gastroplastiek
Japanese イケイセイ, 胃形成, 胃形成術, 胃成形術, 胃再建術
Hungarian Gastroplastica
Norwegian Gastroplastikk
French Gastroplastie
German Gastroplastie, Magenplastik
Italian Gastroplastica
Portuguese Gastroplastia
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Jejunoileal Bypass (C0022375)

Definition (MSH) A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D007581
SnomedCT 69052003, 359581008, 359585004
English Bypass, Ileojejunal, Bypass, Jejuno-Ileal, Bypass, Jejunoileal, Bypasses, Ileojejunal, Bypasses, Jejuno-Ileal, Bypasses, Jejunoileal, Ileojejunal Bypass, Ileojejunal Bypasses, Jejuno Ileal Bypass, Jejuno-Ileal Bypass, Jejuno-Ileal Bypasses, Jejunoileal Bypass, Jejunoileal Bypasses, jejuno-ileal bypass, jejunoileal bypass (treatment), jejunoileal bypass, Jejunoileal bypass, Jejunoileostomy bypass shunt for obesity, Ileojejunal bypass, Ileojejunal bypass (procedure), Jejunoileostomy bypass shunt for obesity (procedure), Ileojejunal bypass (procedure) [Ambiguous]
Italian Bypass ileodigiunale, Derivazione digiuno-ileale, Derivazione digiunoileale
French Dérivation iléojéjunale, Dérivation iléo-jéjunale, Anastomose jéjuno-iléale, Bypass iléo-jéjunal, Bypass iléojéjunal, Bypass jéjuno-iléal, Jéjuno-iléostomie, Shunt iléojéjunal, Dérivation jéjuno-iléale
Swedish Jejunoileal-bypass
Japanese カイチョウクウチョウバイパス, バイパス術-空腸回腸, 空腸回腸バイパス, 回腸空腸バイパス, 空腸回腸バイパス術
Czech jejunoileální bypass, Ileojejunální bypass, ileojejunální bypass
Finnish Ohutsuolen ohitusleikkaus
Polish Zespolenie omijające czczo-krętnicze, Pomostowanie czczo-krętnicze, Bypass jelitowy, Bypass czczo-krętniczy
Hungarian Ileojejunalis bypass
Norwegian Jejunoileal bypass
Portuguese Derivação Jejunoileal, Derivação ileojejunal, Derivação Ileojejunal
Spanish yeyunoileoanastomosis para tratamiento de la obesidad, bypass anastomótico yeyunoileal para la obesidad, bypass ileoyeyunal, derivación ileoyeyunal (concepto no activo), derivación ileoyeyunal (procedimiento), derivación ileoyeyunal, derivación yeyunoileal para la obesidad (procedimiento), derivación yeyunoileal para la obesidad, Derivación ileo-yeyunal, Bypass Ileoyeyunal, Derivación Yeyunoileal
Dutch ileojejunale bypass, Bypass, ileojejunale, Bypass, jejuno-ileale, Jejuno-ileale bypass
German ileojejunaler Bypass, Ileojejunale Anastomose, Ileojejunaler Bypass, Jejunoileale Anastomose, Jejunoilealer Bypass
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Roux-en-Y intestino-biliary bypass (C0842814)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
ICD10 30460-08
English Roux-en-Y intestino-biliary bypass
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Bariatric Surgery (C1456587)

Definition (MSH) Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity.

There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you can take in. Some types of surgery also affect how you digest food and absorb nutrients. All types have risks and complications, such as infections, hernias, and blood clots.

Many people who have the surgery lose weight quickly, but regain some weight later on. If you follow diet and exercise recommendations, you can keep most of the weight off. You will also need medical follow-up for the rest of your life.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Definition (NCI) Surgery performed in morbidly obese patients to help promote weight loss. The procedure aims at the reduction of the stomach size and it is usually achieved either with the implantation of a medical device or the removal of part of the stomach.
Definition (CSP) surgical treatment of obesity.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D050110
CPT 1007385
Swedish Överviktsoperationer
Czech bariatrická chirurgie, Bariatrická operace
Finnish Lihavuuden kirurginen hoito
Italian Chirurgie bariatriche, Intervento bariatrico, Chirurgia bariatrica
English Bariatric surgery, Gastrointestinal Bariatric Surgery, Weight Loss Surgery, Bariatric Surgical Procedure, Bariatric Surgical Procedures, Procedures, Bariatric Surgical, Surgical Procedures, Bariatric, Procedure, Bariatric Surgical, Surgical Procedure, Bariatric, Metabolic Surgeries, Surgery, Metabolic, Metabolic Surgery, Surgeries, Metabolic, Bariatric Surgery Procedures, Bariatric Surgery, Bariatric Surgeries, Surgeries, Bariatric, Surgery, Bariatric, weight loss surgery, bariatric surgery
Spanish Cirugía bariátrica, Cirugía Bariátrica
Portuguese Cirurgia bariátrica, Cirurgia Bariátrica
Dutch bariatrische chirurgie
French Chirurgie bariatrique, Chirurgie baryatrique, Chirurgie de l'obésité
German bariatrische Chirurgie, Bariatrisch-chirurgische Eingriffe, Bariatrische Chirurgie, Bariatrische Operation
Japanese ゲンリョウシュジュツ, 減量手術, 肥満症治療手術, 肥満手術, 肥満治療手術, 肥満外科手術
Polish Zabiegi bariatryczne, Operacje bariatryczne, Chirurgiczne leczenie otyłości
Hungarian Kóros elhízás elleni műtét
Norwegian Bariatrisk kirurgi, Overvektskirurgi, Overvektsoperasjoner
Croatian Barijatrijska kirurgija
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Sleeve gastrectomy (C3160799)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
English Sleeve gastrectomy
Spanish Gastrectomía tubular
Portuguese Gastrectomia em manga
Italian Gastrectomia a manica
German Sleeve-Gastrektomie
French Gastrectomie par gaine
Dutch sleeve-gastrectomie
Czech Tubulizace žaludku
Japanese シュウジョウイセツジョ, 袖状胃切除, ソデジョウイセツジョ
Hungarian Laparoszkópikus gastrectomia
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

You are currently viewing the original 'fpnotebook.com\legacy' version of this website. Internet Explorer 8.0 and older will automatically be redirected to this legacy version.

If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Another, mobile version is also available which should function on both newer and older web browsers.

Please Contact Me as you run across problems with any of these versions on the website.

Navigation Tree