Endocrinology Book


Obesity Management

Aka: Obesity Management, Weight Reduction, Obesity Monitoring
  1. See Also
    1. Obesity
    2. Obesity in Children
    3. Obesity Evaluation
    4. Obesity Measurement (or Obesity Screening)
    5. Obesity Risk (or Obesity Comorbid Conditions)
    6. Obesity Medication
    7. Dietary Supplements in Obesity
    8. Exercise in Obesity
    9. Obesity Resources
  2. Management: Select appropriate target weight loss
    1. Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30: Current BMI - 2
    2. Body Mass Index (BMI) <= 30: Lose 10% of current weight
  3. Management: Establish basic weight loss program
    1. Establish regular follow-up visits
      1. Schedule at least one session per month for 3 months (AAFP recommendations)
      2. Focus on intensive counseling and behavioral intervention
      3. Simple interventions are effective with better compliance
        1. Higher fiber and more vegetables
        2. Stand more each day
      4. Practice Motivational Interviewing
        1. See Health Risk Motivational Counseling (e.g. Five Rs Technique)
        2. Express empathy
        3. Assess for patient motivation and confidence to achieve weight loss
        4. Juxtapose the risks and benefits of change
        5. Reinforce a patient's ideas and solutions to achieve weight loss
    2. Healthy eating and reduced Caloric Intake
      1. See Food Pyramid
      2. Reduce Caloric Intake
        1. See Energy Deficit Calculation
        2. Typical deficit: 500 kcal/day
          1. Avoid very low calorie diets (>800 kcal/day) except under close observation
          2. Women: 1200-1500 kcal/day
          3. Men: 1500-1800 kcal/day
      3. Eat a minimum of 3 times daily (esp. eat breakfast daily)
        1. Stop Binge Eating at bedtime
      4. Drink non-sugar, non-Caffeine fluid >64 ounces/day
      5. Observe serving size and ingredients closely
        1. Super-sized meals dramatically increases calories
        2. One 8 ounce soda contains 15 teaspoons of sugar
      6. Write down everything you eat (one approach)
        1. Weight watchers
        2. Handheld log
          1. Balance Log
            1. http://www.healthetech.com
          2. Vivonic
            1. http://www.vivonic.com
          3. Calorie Chart
            1. http://www.caloriechart.org
          4. Lose It!
            1. http://www.apptism.com/apps/lose-it
      7. Use high bulk, low density foods
        1. Eat Foods with high water, fiber, and lean Protein
        2. Fruit: 3/4 pound grapes = 1.5 ounces chocolate kcals
        3. Vegetables: 1 pound carrots = 1 ounce peanuts kcals
        4. Reference
          1. Thompson (2005) Mayo Reviews Lecture, Rochester
      8. Choose dietary management for the longterm
        1. Diets are equally effective in weight loss
        2. Dansinger (2005) JAMA 293:43-53 [PubMed]
    3. Increase Physical Activity
      1. See Exercise in Obesity
      2. Start with 10 minutes everyday and build
      3. Goals
        1. Overall activity (HHS) of 150-300 min/week moderate activity (or 75-150 min/week vigorous activity)
        2. Prevent Obesity (NIH) with 45-60 min/day moderate activity
        3. Prevent regaining weight (NIH) with 90 min/day moderate activity
      4. Stand more each day
      5. Exercise is key in a weight loss
        1. However Exercise without dietary change does not result in weight loss
        2. Wing (1999) Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:S547 [PubMed]
    4. Incorporate Lifestyle change strategies
    5. Consider changing from Medications Associated with Weight Gain
    6. Consider organized weight loss program
      1. Weight Watchers
        1. http://www.weightwatchers.com
      2. TOPS (Take Off Pounds Sensibly)
        1. http://www.tops.org
  4. Management: Modify weight loss program based on Obesity Risk
    1. Moderate Risk
      1. Basic weight loss program
      2. Consider low calorie diet
    2. High and very high risk
      1. Basic weight loss program
      2. Consider very low calorie diet
      3. Consider Obesity Medication
    3. Extremely high risk
      1. Basic weight loss program
      2. Consider very low calorie diet
      3. Consider Obesity Medication
      4. Consider Obesity Surgery (Bariatric Surgery)
  5. References
    1. Frank (1998) J Am Diet Assoc 98:S44-48 [PubMed]
    2. Lyznicki (2001) Am Fam Physician 63(11):2185-96 [PubMed]
    3. Rippe (1998) J Am Diet Assoc 98:S9-15 [PubMed]
    4. Speer (1997) Phys Sportsmed 25:94-107 [PubMed]
    5. (1998) AOA Treatment Adult Obesity, 2nd edition

Obesity monitoring status (C0421268)

Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 243862009
English Obesity monitoring status, Obesity monitoring status (finding)
Spanish situación del control de la obesidad, situación del monitoreo de la obesidad (hallazgo), situación del monitoreo de la obesidad
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Weight maintenance regimen (C0920298)

Definition (CCC) Actions performed to control obesity or debilitation
Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

If you are overweight, you are not alone. About two thirds of adults in the U.S. are overweight or obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It might also help you prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers.

Eating too much or not being physically active enough will make you overweight. To maintain your weight, the calories you eat must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include

  • Choosing low-fat, low-calorie foods
  • Eating smaller portions
  • Drinking water instead of sugary drinks
  • Being physically active

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Definition (CSP) therapy to regulate body weight.
Definition (PSY) Deliberate regulation of one's weight through diet, exercise, or other means. Also, the relative weight change resulting from such regulation practices. Used for human populations only.
Definition (NOC) Personal actions to achieve and maintain optimum body weight
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
SnomedCT 388962008
Italian Controllo del peso
Japanese 体重管理, タイジュウカンリ
English weight control (history), weight control, controling weight, weight management (treatment), Weight Control, Weight control, Weight maintenance regimen (regime/therapy), Weight management, Weight maintenance regimen, weight management
Czech Kontrola hmotnosti
Hungarian Testsúlykontrol
Spanish dieta para mantenimiento de peso (régimen/tratamiento), dieta para mantenimiento de peso, Control del peso
Portuguese Controlo de peso
Dutch gewichtscontrole
French Contrôle du poids
German Gewichtskontrolle
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Obesity Adverse Event (C1963185)

Concepts Finding (T033)
English Obesity Adverse Event, Obesity
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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