Endocrinology Book


Serum Glucose

Aka: Serum Glucose, Blood Glucose, Blood Sugar, Glucose, Hyperglycemia
  1. See Also
    1. Medication Causes of Hyperglycemia
    2. Diabetes Mellitus
    3. Glucose Challenge Test
    4. Two hour Glucose Tolerance Test
    5. Three Hour Glucose Tolerance Test
    6. Hemoglobin A1C
  2. Physiology
    1. Images
      1. glycolysis.png
      2. gluconeogenesis.png
  3. Precautions
    1. See Diabetes Mellitus for evaluation and management of initial evaluation and management of Hyperglycemia
    2. Serum Glucose >250 mg/dl may be associated with Serum Ketone production
  4. Interpretation: Normal
    1. Fasting Blood Sugar: <100 mg/dl
      1. Reflects Insulin Resistance, hepatic production and overnight Glucose secretion
    2. Postprandial 2 hours: <140 mg/dl
      1. Reflects pancreatic islet cell response to a meal (endogenous Insulin secretion)
      2. Blood Glucose may in some cases rise as high as 160 mg/dl after a large meal in a non-diabetic patient
    3. Stress response
      1. Typically Serum Glucose <200 mg/dl
  5. Causes: Hypoglycemia
    1. See Hypoglycemia
  6. Causes: Hyperglycemia
    1. See Medication Causes of Hyperglycemia
    2. Endocrine
      1. Acromegaly
      2. Diabetes Mellitus
      3. Cushing Disease
      4. Hyperthyroidism
    3. Non-Endocrine
      1. Hemochromatosis
      2. Pancreatitis
      3. Liver disease
      4. CNS disease

Blood Glucose (C0005802)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Glucose (a type of sugar) found in the blood.
Definition (MSH) Glucose in blood.
Definition (CSP) levels of glucose found in the blood.
Concepts Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH D001786
English Blood Glucose, Blood Sugar, Glucose, Blood, Sugar, Blood, blood glucose, Blood Glucose [Chemical/Ingredient], bloods sugar, glucose blood, sugar blood, blood sugars, blood sugar, Blood sugar, glycemia
Swedish Blodsocker
Czech glykémie, krevní glukosa, krevní cukr
Finnish Verensokeri
Spanish Azúcar en la Sangre, Glucemia, Glucosa en la Sangre, Glucosa de la Sangre, Azúcar de la Sangre, Glucosa Sanguínea
Portuguese Glucose no Sangue, Açúcar no Sangue, Glucose do Sangue, Glucemia, Glucose Sanguínea, Açúcar do Sangue, Glicemia
Polish Glukoza we krwi, Glikemia, Cukier we krwi
Japanese 血糖, 血中グルコース
German Glukose, Blut-, Blutglukose, Blutglucose, Blutzucker, Glucose, Blut-
French Glycémie
Italian Glicemia
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Glucose (C0017725)

Definition (NCI_CRCH) A hexose with an aldehyde group; in which each of the 5 remaining carbons other than the aldehyde group has one hydroxyl group in the R,S,R, and R configuration counting from the first hydroxyl containing carbon next to the aldehyde in the straight chain (Fisher) projection; otherwise all carbons have exclusively hydrogens. Occurs mostly as pyran (6-membered oxygen containing ring or oxane) and rarely as furan (5-membered oxygen containing ring) or straight chain. When glucose forms a ring an additional ""anomeric"" asymmetric carbon is created which is denoted as ""alpha"" or ""beta"". For isomers see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A type of sugar; the chief source of energy for living organisms.
Definition (NCI) A simple sugar monosaccharide having two isoforms, alpha and beta, with a chemical structure of C6H12O6 that acts as an energy source for both plants and animals by reacting with oxygen, generating carbon dioxide and water, and releasing energy.
Definition (MSH) A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Definition (CSP) aldohexose occurring as the D form and found as a free monosaccharide in fruits and other parts of plants and in the normal blood of all animals; the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and the chief source of energy for most living organisms.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Carbohydrate (T118) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D005947
SnomedCT 67079006, 387370006, 111138002, 66611007, 325307004, 386987008
LNC LP32534-7, LP14635-4, MTHU001675
English D Glucose, D-Glucose, Dextrose, Glucose, glucose, Glucose [endocrine], D-glucose, foods dextrose, glucose (dextrose), glucose (dextrose) (medication), foods glucose (dextrose), dextrose (medication), Dextrose preparation, DEXTROSE, Glucose [Chemical/Ingredient], endocrine glucose, glucose preparations, d-glucose, glucoses, dextrose, Dextrose preparation (product), D-glucose preparation, Dextrose (substance), Glucose preparation (substance), D-glucopyranose monohydrate preparation, Glucose [endocrine] (product), 6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol, Dextrose product, Glucose preparation, Glucose product, Glucose (substance), Glucose preparation (product), Glucose, NOS, Dextrose preparation (substance), Glucose [endocrine] (substance), GLUCOSE
Swedish Glukos
Spanish preparado de dextrosa, dextrosa, D-glucosa, preparado con glucosa (producto), glucosa (producto), preparado con glucosa, dextrosa (sustancia), preparado de glucosa (sustancia), preparado con dextrosa, preparado con monohidrato de D-glucopiranosa, preparado con D-glucosa, preparado con dextrosa (producto), preparado de glucosa, glucosa [uso endocrinológico], glucosa [uso endocrinológico] (producto), glucosa (sustancia), glucosa [endocrina] (producto), glucosa [endocrina], glucosa, preparado de D-glucosa, preparado de dextrosa (producto), preparado de dextrosa (sustancia), preparado de glucosa (producto), preparado de monohidrato de D-glucopiranosa, Glucosa, Dextrosa
Czech glukosa, glukóza
Finnish Glukoosi
Italian Destrosio, D-glucosio, Glucosio
Japanese グルコース, デキストロース, ブドウ糖, 葡萄糖
Croatian GLUKOZA
Polish Glikoza, Dekstroza, Glukoza
Portuguese Glicose, Destrose, Glucose
French Dextrose, Glucose
German Dextrose, Glucose, Glukose
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Hyperglycemia (C0020456)

Definition (MSH) Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Hyperglycemia means high blood sugar or glucose. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose into your cells to give them energy. Hyperglycemia happens when your body doesn't make enough insulin or can't use it the right way.

People with diabetes can get hyperglycemia from not eating the right foods or not taking medicines correctly. Other problems that can raise blood sugar include infections, certain medicines, hormone imbalances, or severe illnesses.

Definition (NCI) Abnormally high level of glucose in the blood.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Higher than normal amount of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Hyperglycemia can be a sign of diabetes or other conditions.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by laboratory test results that indicate an elevation in the concentration of blood sugar. It is usually an indication of diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance.
Definition (CSP) abnormally high blood glucose level.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D006943
ICD10 R73.9
SnomedCT 315299009, 207643008, 154719004, 207289007, 270004003, 144187006, 390730002, 80394007, 237598005
English Hyperglycemias, HYPERGLYCAEMIA, [D]Hyperglycaemia, [D]Hyperglycemia, Hyperglycaemia, unspecified, Hyperglycemia, unspecified, [D]Hyperglycemia (context-dependent category), Hyperglycemia NOS, [X]Hyperglycaemia, unspecified, [X]Hyperglycemia, unspecified, hyperglycemia, hyperglycemia (diagnosis), Hyperglycaemia NOS, Hyperglycemia, Hyperglycemia [Disease/Finding], hyperglycaemia, high blood sugar level, elevated blood sugar, [D]Hyperglycaemia (situation), Hyperglycaemia (disorder), [D]Hyperglycemia (situation), [X]Hyperglycemia, unspecified (finding), High blood sugar, High Blood Glucose, High Blood Sugar, High blood glucose, high blood sugar, GLUCOSE, HIGH BLOOD, HYPERGLYCEMIA, HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE, BLOOD GLUCOSE, HIGH, Hyperglycaemia, Hyperglycaemic disorder, Hyperglycemic disorder, Hyperglycemia (disorder), Hyperglycemic disorder (disorder), blood sugar; high, blood; sugar, high, high; blood sugar, sugar; blood, high, Hyperglycemia, NOS, Hyperglycaemia, NOS, [X]Hyperglycemia, unspecified (context-dependent category)
French HYPERGLYCEMIE, Hyperglycémie SAI, Hyperglycémie
Portuguese HIPERGLICEMIA, Hiperglicemia NE, Hiperglucemia, Hiperglucemia Pós-Prandial, Hiperglicemia
German HYPERGLYKAEMIE, Hyperglykaemie NNB, Hyperglykaemie, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Hyperglykaemie, Hyperglykämie
Dutch hyperglykemie NAO, bloed; suiker, hoog, bloedsuiker; hoog, hoog; bloedsuiker, suiker; bloed, hoog, Hyperglykemie, niet gespecificeerd, hyperglykemie, Glykemie, hyper-, Hyperglykemie
Italian Iperglicemia NAS, Iperglicemia
Spanish Hiperglucemia NEOM, [D]hiperglucemia (categoría dependiente del contexto), [X]hiperglucemia, no especificada (categoría dependiente del contexto), HIPERGLUCEMIA, [X]hiperglucemia, no especificada (hallazgo), [D]hiperglucemia (situación), [D]hiperglucemia, [X]hiperglucemia, no especificada, Hiperglucemia Postprandial, Hiperglicemia, hiperglicemia, hiperglucemia (trastorno), hiperglucemia, trastorno hiperglucémico (trastorno), trastorno hiperglucémico, Hiperglucemia
Japanese 高血糖NOS, コウケットウ, コウケットウNOS, 過血糖, 高血糖症, 高血糖, 過血糖症
Swedish Hyperglykemi
Finnish Hyperglykemia
Czech Hyperglykemie, Hyperglykemie NOS, Hypeglykemie, vysoká glykemie, vysoká glykémie, hyperglykemie, hyperglykémie
Korean 상세불명의 과혈당
Polish Hiperglikemia
Hungarian Hyperglycaemia k.m.n., Hyperglycaemia
Norwegian Hyperglykemi, Høyt blodsukker
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Glucose measurement, serum (C0202041)

Definition (NCI) A quantitative measurement of the amount of glucose present in a sample of serum.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 22569008
English Serum Glucose, Serum Glucose Measurement, Serum glucose, serum glucose, glucose serum tests, glucose serum test, serum glucose test, glucose serum, Serum Glucose Test, Glucose measurement, serum, Glucose measurement, serum (procedure)
Dutch serum glucose
French Glucose sérique
German Glukose im Serum
Italian Glucosio sierico
Portuguese Glucose sérica
Spanish Glucosa sérica, medición de glucosa en suero (procedimiento), medición de glucosa en suero
Japanese 血清ブドウ糖, ケッセイブドウトウ
Czech Hladina glukózy v séru
Hungarian Szérum glükóz
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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