Endocrinology Book


Waist-to-Hip Ratio

Aka: Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Waist Circumference, Anthropometry, Android Obesity, Apple Obesity, Beer Belly, Gynoid Obesity, Pear Obesity
  1. Technique
    1. General
      1. Use non-stretchable measuring tape
      2. Tape should touch skin, but not compress soft tissue
      3. Avoid twists in the tape
    2. Waist Circumference
      1. Do not measure within 1 hour of large meal
      2. Measure patient while supine
        1. Measuring tape may fall in standing position
        2. Panniculus shifts downward in standing position
        3. Williamson (1993) Am J Hum Biol 15:159-67 [PubMed]
      3. Measure at natural waist, midway between:
        1. Palpated iliac crest
        2. Palpated lowest rib margin at mid axillary line
    3. Hip Circumference
      1. Patient stands erect
        1. Arms at side
        2. Feet together
      2. Measure hips at maximum circumference over buttocks
  2. Interpretation of Higher Obesity Risk
    1. Waist-to-Hip Ratio
      1. Measures fat distribution
        1. Pear Obesity (Gynoid Obesity)
        2. Apple Obesity (Android Obesity, Beer Belly)
          1. Higher cardiovascular disease risk
          2. Higher risk of Insulin Resistance
      2. Values suggestive of Apple Obesity
        1. Males > 1.0 confers increased risk
        2. Females > 0.9 confers increased risk
    2. Waist Circumference
      1. Males >= 40 inches (102 cm) confers increased risk
      2. Females >= 35 inches (88 cm) confers increased risk
  3. References
    1. Flier in Wilson (1998) Williams Endocrinology, p. 1063
    2. (1998) Treatment of Adult Obesity, AOA, p. 63-4
      1. http://www.shapeup.org

Anthropometry (C0003188)

Definition (MSH) The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Definition (CSP) measurement of the physical dimensions of the human or other primate body characteristics such as size, breadth, girth, weight, proportion and distance between anatomical points; also includes segment masses, the centers of gravity of body segments, and the ranges of joint motion, which are used in biomechanical analyses of work postures; in anthropology it is used to refer to different body sizes and proportions of individuals belonging to different populations.
Concepts Research Activity (T062)
MSH D000886
English Anthropometry, anthropometry
Swedish Antropometri
Czech antropometrie
Finnish Antropometria
Polish Antropometria
Norwegian Antropometri
French Anthropométrie
German Anthropometrie
Italian Antropometria
Dutch Antropometrie
Portuguese Antropometria
Spanish Antropometría
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Android obesity (C0342940)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 238132000
English obesity android, android obesity, Android obesity, Android obesity (disorder)
Spanish obesidad androide (trastorno), obesidad androide
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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