Endocrinology Book

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High Energy Molecule

Aka: High Energy Molecule, Adenosine Triphosphate, ATP, Adenosine Diphosphate, ADP, Guanosine Triphosphate, GTP, Uridine Triphosphate, Phosphocreatine, Creatine Phosphate, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, NADH, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate, NADPH, Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide, FADH2, Coenzyme A, Acetyl Coenzyme A, Tetrahydrofolate, Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolic acid, Thiamine Pyrophosphate, S-Adenosylmethionine, Uridine Diphosphate Glucose, UDP Glucose, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Electron Transport Chain
  1. See Also
    1. Energy Metabolism
  2. Mechanism: Energy Transfer
    1. Oxidative Phosphorylation (Electron Transport Chain)
      1. electronTransportChain.png
      2. Reaction cascade that converts Kreb Cycle energy from NADH and FADH to ATP
      3. Cytochrome based process within the mitochondria
      4. Oxygen dependent process (oxidation) coupled to phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
        1. When this process is uncoupled (e.g. uncoupler, hibernation), rare in humans, heat is generated
  3. Types: Phosphoryl Transferring High Energy Molecules
    1. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP/ADP)
      1. Adenine Nucelotide (sugar molecule with 3 attached phosphates, formed from Adenosine)
      2. Primary Function
        1. Primary energy currency of the cell (Energy Metabolism)
        2. RNA synthesis
      3. Other Functions
        1. Neurotransmitter
      4. ATP serves as a packet of energy currency (transfers energy via phosphorylation)
        1. Glycolysis (from Glucose, and from Fructose-6 Phosphate)
      5. ATP is generated from Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) on phosphorylation by High Energy Molecules
        1. Glycolysis (from 1, 3 Biphosphoglycerate, and from Phophoenolpyruvate)
    2. Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP/GDP)
      1. Guanine nucleotide (sugar molecule with 3 attached phosphates)
    3. Uridine Triphosphate (UTP/UDP)
      1. Uracil Nucelotide (sugar molecule with 3 attached phosphates, formed from Adenosine)
      2. Functions include Glycogen and Glucose Metabolism, as well as RNA synthesis
    4. Phosphocreatine (Creatine Phosphate)
      1. Phosphate source in skeletal Muscle, Myocardium as well as brain
      2. Phosphorylates ADP to ATP within the cell
      3. Phosphocreatine is metabolized to Creatinine and excreted in the urine, typically at a constant rate
      4. Phosphocreatine formation
        1. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is sythesized in the Kidney from arginine and glycine (via AGAT enzyme)
        2. Non-phosphorylated Creatine forms by adding a methyl group to GAA in the liver (via GAMT enzyme)
        3. Phosphocreatine forms within Muscle Cells via Creatinine kinase activity
        4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphocreatine
  4. Types: Hydrogen (electron) Transferring High Energy Molecules
    1. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH/NAD+)
      1. Transfers energy (electron, hydrogen) when it transitions from its reduced form (NADH) to oxidized form (NAD+)
      2. Key electron carrier for metabolic pathways including Krebs Cycle
      3. NADH maintains Hemoglobin's iron atoms in their reduced state (Fe++)
    2. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH/NADP)
      1. Transfers energy (electron, hydrogen) when it transitions from its reduced form (NADPH) to oxidized form (NADP+)
      2. NADPH Is produced in Hexose Monophosphate Shunt (HMP Shunt, Pentose Shunt), active throughout the body
      3. Functions
        1. NADPH reduces glutathione which protects RBCs against oxidative damage (e.g. superoxide radicals)
        2. Active in fat cells (Fatty Acid synthesis) and in liver cells (Cholesterol synthesis)
        3. Active in the Adrenal Cortex (steroid Hormone synthesis)
    3. Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FADH2/FADH)
      1. Transfers energy (electron, hydrogen) when it transitions from its reduced form (FADH2) to oxidized form (FAD+)
  5. Types: Miscellaneous High Energy Molecules
    1. Biotin (Biotin-CO2/Biotin)
    2. Acetyl Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA/CoA-Sh)
      1. Coenzyme A is an acetyl group donor in the Krebs Cycle, Fatty Acid biosynthesis and amino acid metabolism
    3. Activated Tetrahydrofolate (THF-C/DHF)
      1. Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) derivative and a coenzyme in amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis
      2. Acts as single carbon donor in energy transfer (e.g. dUMP to TMP)
      3. Activated from Dihydrofolic acid (DHF) via dihydrofolate reductase (inhibited by Methotrexate)
    4. Thiamine Pyrophosphate (ThPP)
      1. Biologically active form of Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
      2. Cofactor in Carbohydrate Metabolism (oxidative decarboxylation)
    5. S-Adenosylmethionine
      1. Active sulfonium form of the amino acid, methionine
      2. Acts as a methyl group donor in various reactions (enzymatic transmethylation)
      3. Formed from Methionine and ATP
    6. Uridine Diphosphate Glucose (UDP-Glucose/UDP)
      1. Carbohydrate Metabolism intermediate
        1. Glycogen precursor
        2. Polysaccharide generation (e.g. galactose, glucuronic acid)
        3. Lipopolysaccharide and glycosphingolipid synthesis
  6. References
    1. Goldberg (2001) Biochemistry, Medmaster, Miami, p. 4-12

Acetyl Coenzyme A (C0001026)

Definition (NCI) The condensation product of coenzyme A and acetic acid which participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. In addition, Acetyl Coenzyme A acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Definition (MSH) Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Definition (CSP) participates in biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, fatty acid oxidation, metabolism of many amino acids, and acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114) , Lipid (T119)
MSH D000105
SnomedCT 129915003
English Acetyl CoA, Acetyl Coenzyme A, CoA, Acetyl, Coenzyme A, Acetyl, acetyl coA, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, acetyl coenzyme A, acetyl CoA, Acetyl Coenzyme A [Chemical/Ingredient], acetyl coenzyme, acetyl coa, acetyl coenzyme a, ACETYL COENZYME A, Acetylcoenzyme A, Acetyl coenzyme A, Acetyl coenzyme A (substance), Acetyl-CoA
Swedish Acetyl-CoA
Czech acetylkoenzym A
Finnish Asetyylikoentsyymi A
Italian Acetyl-CoA, Acetyl CoA, Acetil-coenzima A
Russian ATSETIL-KOA, ATSETILKOENZIM A, ATSETILKOFERMENT A, АЦЕТИЛ-КОA, АЦЕТИЛКОФЕРМЕНТ A, АЦЕТИЛКОЭНЗИМ A
Polish Acetylo-koenzym A
Japanese アセチル-CoA, アセチルCoA, アセチルコエンザイムA, アセチルコエンチームA, アセチル補酵素A, アセチル-コエンザイムA
Norwegian Acetyl-koenzym A, Acetyl-coenzym A, Acetyl-CoA
Portuguese Acetilcoenzima A, Acetil CoA
Spanish acetilcoenzima A (sustancia), acetilcoenzima A, Acetil CoA, Acetilcoenzima A
French Acétyl-coA, Acétyl coenzyme A, Acétyl coA
German Acetyl-CoA, Acetyl-Coenzym A
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Adenosine Diphosphate (C0001459)

Definition (MSH) Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Definition (CSP) adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position that is converted to ATP for energy for storage.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D000244
SnomedCT 49745002
LNC LP70321-2, LP15325-1, MTHU007382
English 5'-Pyrophosphate, Adenosine, Adenosine 5' Pyrophosphate, Adenosine 5'-Pyrophosphate, Adenosine Diphosphate, Adenosine Pyrophosphate, ADP, Diphosphate, Adenosine, Pyrophosphate, Adenosine, adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), Adenosine Diphosphate [Chemical/Ingredient], adp, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine diphosphate (substance)
Swedish Adenosindifosfat
Czech adenosindifosfát, ADP
Finnish Adenosiinidifosfaatti
Italian Adenosina pirofosfato, ADP, Adenosina 5'-pirofosfato, Adenosina difosfato
Russian ADENOZINDIFOSFAT, ADENOZINPIROFOSFAT, ADF, АДЕНОЗИНДИФОСФАТ, АДЕНОЗИНПИРОФОСФАТ, АДФ
Japanese アデノシン二りん酸, アデノシンピロりん酸, アデノシンピロリン酸, マグネシウムADP, アデノシン5'-二リン酸, アデノシン二リン酸
Croatian ADENOZIN DIFOSFAT
Polish Adenozynodifosforan, Adenozynodwufosforan, ADP
Spanish Adenosín Difosfato, Difosfato de Adenosina, Pirofosfato de Adenosina, adenosina difosfato (sustancia), adenosina difosfato, ADP, Adenosina Difosfato, Adenosina Pirofosfato
Portuguese Adenosina Difosfato, ADP, Difosfato de Adenosina, Pirofosfato de Adenosina
French ADP, Adénosine diphosphate
German ADP, Adenosindiphosphat, Adenosinpyrophosphat
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Adenosine Triphosphate (C0001480)

Definition (NCI) An adenine nucleotide comprised of three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety, found in all living cells. Adenosine triphosphate is involved in energy production for metabolic processes and RNA synthesis. In addition, this substance acts as a neurotransmitter. In cancer studies, adenosine triphosphate is synthesized to examine its use to decrease weight loss and improve muscle strength.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A substance present in all living cells that provides energy for many metabolic processes and is involved in making RNA. Adenosine triphosphate made in the laboratory is being studied in patients with advanced solid tumors to see if it can decrease weight loss and improve muscle strength.
Definition (MSH) An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Definition (CSP) adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety; in addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114) , Biologically Active Substance (T123)
MSH D000255
SnomedCT 76711004, 102760002
LNC LP14737-8, MTHU001928
English Adenosine Triphosphate, Adenylpyrophosphate, ATP, Adenosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate), Adenosine 5'-triphosphate, Adenosine 5'-Triphosphoric Acid, Adenosine 5'-(Tetrahydrogen Triphosphate), Adenosine Triphosphate [Chemical/Ingredient], adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE, Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (substance), Adenosine triphosphate, ATP - Adenosine triphosphate, ADT - Adenosine triphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate (substance), adenosine triphosphate
Portuguese Trifosfato de Adenosina, Adenosina Trifosfato, ATP, Adenilpirofosfato
Swedish Adenosintrifosfat
Spanish adenosina 5'-trifosfato, trifosfato de adenosina, ATP, adenosina 5' - trifosfato (sustancia), adenosina 5' - trifosfato, Trifosfato de Adenosina, Adenosín Trifosfato, adenosina trifosfato (sustancia), adenosina trifosfato, Adenilpirofosfato, Adenosina Trifosfato
Czech adenosintrifosfát, ATP, adenosin trifosfát
Finnish Adenosiinitrifosfaatti
Italian Adenilpirofosfato, ATP, Adenosina trifosfato
Russian ADENOZINTRIFOSFAT, ATF, ADENILPIROFOSFAT, АДЕНИЛПИРОФОСФАТ, АДЕНОЗИНТРИФОСФАТ, АТФ
Japanese マグネシウムATP, アデノシン三りん酸, アデノシン三燐酸, アデノシン5'-三リン酸, アデノシン三リン酸, アデニルピロりん酸
Croatian ADENOZIN TRIFOSFAT
Polish Adenozynotrifosforan, Adenozynotrójfosforan, ATP
German ATP, Adenosintriphosphat, Adenylpyrophosphat
French ATP, Adénosine triphosphate, Adenylpyrophosphate, Triphosadénine
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Coenzyme A (C0009226)

Definition (NCI) A coenzyme containing pantothenic acid, adenosine 3-phosphate 5-pyrophosphate, and cysteamine; involved in the transfer of acyl groups, notably in transacetylations.
Definition (CSP) coenzyme that takes part in fatty acid metabolism.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D003065
SnomedCT 129914004
English A, Coenzyme, CoA, Coenzyme A, coenzyme A, COENZYME A AA, coA, CoA (chemical), Coenzyme A [Chemical/Ingredient], coenzyme A (CoA), coenzyme a, coa, COENZYME A, Coenzyme A (substance)
Swedish Koenzym A
Czech koenzym A
Finnish Koentsyymi A
Russian KOENZIM A, KOFERMENT A, KOA, КОA, КОФЕРМЕНТ A, КОЭНЗИМ A
Italian CoA, Coenzima A
German COENZYM A AA, CoA, Coenzym A
Polish Koenzym A, CoA
Japanese コエンチームA, 補酵素A
Norwegian Koenzym A, Coenzym A, CoA
Spanish coenzima A (sustancia), coenzima A, CoA, Coenzima A
French CoA, Coenzyme A
Portuguese CoA, Coenzima A
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Dihydrofolic acid (C0012299)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109) , Vitamin (T127)
SnomedCT 43289005
English Dihydrofolic acid, Dihydrofolic acid (substance)
Spanish ácido dihidrofólico
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide (C0015540)

Definition (MSH) A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Definition (CSP) coenzyme composed of riboflavin 5'-phosphate and adenosine 5'-phosphate linked by a pyrophosphate bond; it forms the prosthetic group of many flavoprotein enzymes, serving as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (FAD) and reduced (FMNH2); important in electron transport in mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D005182
SnomedCT 30094001
LNC LP15574-4, MTHU009114
English Dinucleotide, Flavin-Adenine, FAD, flavin adenine dinucleotide, Riboflavin 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), P'-5'-ester with adenosine, Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide, Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide, Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide [Chemical/Ingredient], fad, flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD), FLAVIN ADENIN DINUCLEOTIDE, Riboflavine 5'-(Trihydrogen Diphosphate) 5'->5'-Ester with Adenosine, Adenine-Riboflavin Dinucleotide, FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE, Riboflavin dinucleotide, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Riboflavin dinucleotide (substance)
Swedish Flavin-adenindinukleotid
Czech FAD, flavinadenindinukleotid
Finnish Flaviiniadeniinidinukleotidi
Russian FLAVINADENINDINUKLEOTID, FAD, ФАД, ФЛАВИНАДЕНИНДИНУКЛЕОТИД
Japanese フラビン-アデニンジヌクレオチド, フラビンアデニンジヌクレオチド
French FAD (Flavine adénine dinucléotide), Flavine adénine dinucléotide
Italian Flavina Adenina Dinucleotide, FAD
Spanish dinucléotido de adenosinflavina, dinucleótido de adenosinflavina, Dinucleótido Flavina-Adenina, Dinucleótido de Flavina-Adenina, Dinucleótido de Flavina y Adenina, Flavín-Adenín Dinucleótido, dinucleótido de riboflavina (sustancia), dinucleótido de riboflavina, FAD, Flavina-Adenina Dinucleótido
Polish Dinukleotyd flawino-adeninowy, FAD, Dwunukleotyd flawino-adeninowy
Norwegian Flavinaenin dinukleotid, FAD
Portuguese Dinucleotídeo de Flavina e Adenina, Dinucleotídeo de Flavina-Adenina, Dinucleotídeo Flavina-Adenina, FAD, Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo
German FAD, Flavin-Adenin-Dinucleotid
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Guanosine Triphosphate (C0018353)

Definition (MSH) Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Definition (CSP) guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate); a guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Concepts Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D006160
SnomedCT 91262008
English GTP, Guanosine Triphosphate, Triphosphate, Guanosine, guanosine triphosphate, Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate), Guanosine Triphosphate [Chemical/Ingredient], guanosine triphosphate (GTP), gtp, Guanosine triphosphate, Guanosine triphosphate (substance)
Swedish Guanosintrifosfat
Czech guanosintrifosfát
Finnish Guanosiinitrifosfaatti
Russian GUANOZINTRIFOSFAT, GTF, ГТФ, ГУАНОЗИНТРИФОСФАТ
Japanese グアノシン三リン酸, グアノシン5'-三リン酸, グアノシン三りん酸
French Guanosine triphosphate, GTP
Polish GTP, Guazynotrójfosforan, Guanozynotrifosforan
Spanish Trifosfato de Guanosina, guanosina trifosfato (sustancia), guanosina trifosfato, GTP, Guanosina Trifosfato
German GTP, Guanosintriphosphat
Italian Guanosina trifosfato
Portuguese GTP, Guanosina Trifosfato
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) (C0027270)

Definition (NCI) Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, a coenzyme, found in eukaryotic cells and is involved in many enzymatic reactions and the production of energy through redox reactions.
Definition (NCI) A dinucleotide of adenine and nicotinamide. It has coenzyme activity in redox reactions and also acts as a donor of ADP-ribose moieties.
Definition (MSH) A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Definition (CSP) coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage; found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH).
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D009243
SnomedCT 131143000
English Adenine Dinucleotide, Dihydronicotinamide, Coenzyme I, Dihydronicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Dinucleotide, Dihydronicotinamide Adenine, Dinucleotide, Nicotinamide-Adenine, Diphosphopyridine Nucleotide, DPN, NAD, Nadide, Nicotinamide-Adenine Dinucleotide, Nucleotide, Diphosphopyridine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), P'-5'-ester with 3-(aminocarbonyl)-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium, inner salt, COENZYME A A 01, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, NAD [Chemical/Ingredient], nad, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), NADIDE, Co-I, Cozymase, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Codehydrogenase I, nadide, 3-Carbamoyl-1-Beta-D-Ribofuranosylpyridinium Hydroxide, 5'-Ester with Adenosine 5'-Pyrophosphate, Inner Salt, NAD+, Adenosine 5'-(Trihydrogen Diphosphate), 5'-5'-Ester with 3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-Beta-D-Ribofuranosylpyridinium, Hydroxide, Inner Salt, Beta-NAD, 3-Carbamoyl-1-Beta-D-Ribofuranosylpyridinium Hydroxide 5'-5'-Ester with Adenosine 5'-(Trihydrogen Pyrophosphate) Inner Salt, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (substance), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Swedish NAD
Czech NAD
Finnish NAD
Russian DPN, NIKOTINAMIDADENINDINUKLEOTID, NAD, DIFOSFOPIRIDINNUKLEOTID, KOENZIM I, KOFERMENT I, ДИФОСФОПИРИДИННУКЛЕОТИД, ДПН, КОФЕРМЕНТ I, КОЭНЗИМ I, НАД, НИКОТИНАМИДАДЕНИНДИНУКЛЕОТИД
Japanese ジホスホピリジンヌクレオチド, ニコチンアミドアデニンジヌクレオチド, 補酵素1
German COENZYM A A 01, NAD, Coenzym I, DPN, Diphosphopyridinnucleotid, Nadid, Nicotinamid-Adenindinucleotid
Italian Diidronicotinamide adenina dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenina dinucleotide, Nicotinamide-adenina-dinucleotide, Nadide, DPN, Difosfopiridina nucleotide, NAD
Polish Dwunukleotyd nikotynoamidoadeninowy, NAD
Norwegian Difosfopyridinnukleotid-n adid, Dihydronikotinamid- adenindinukleotid, Nikotinamid-adenin- dinukleotid, NAD
Spanish NADH, NAD, nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido (sustancia), nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido, DPN, Coenzima I, Nadide, Nicotinamida-Adenina Dinucleotido, Difosfopiridina Nucleótido
Portuguese NADH, NAD, DPN, Coenzima I, Difosfopiridina Nucleotídeo, Nicotinamida-Adenina Dinucleotídeo
French NAD, Nicotinamide adénine dinucléotide
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


NADP (C0027303)

Definition (NCI) Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate, an oxidation-reduction coenzyme, found in eukaryotic cells and is involved in many enzymatic reactions.
Definition (MSH) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Definition (CSP) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; a coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate; serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced ( NADPH).
Concepts Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114) , Biologically Active Substance (T123)
MSH D009249
SnomedCT 131144006
English Coenzyme II, Dinucleotide Phosphate, Nicotinamide-Adenine, NADP, NADPH, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate, Nicotinamide-Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate, Nucleotide, Triphosphopyridine, Phosphate, Nicotinamide-Adenine Dinucleotide, Triphosphopyridine Nucleotide, Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate), P'-5'-ester with 3-(aminocarbonyl)-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium, inner salt, NAD(H) phosphate, COENZYME A A 02, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NAD phosphate, NADP [Chemical/Ingredient], nadp, nadph, TPN, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), NADH phosphate, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (substance), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, triphosphopyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
Swedish NADP
Czech NADP
Finnish NADP
Russian NADF, NADFH, TRIFOSFOPIRIDINNUKLEOTID, KOFERMENT II, NIKOTINAMIDADENINDINUKLEOTIDFOSFAT, TPN, KOENZIM II, TRIFOSFOPIRIDINNUKLEOTIDFOSFAT, КОФЕРМЕНТ II, КОЭНЗИМ II, НАДФ, НИКОТИНАМИДАДЕНИНДИНУКЛЕОТИДФОСФАТ, ТПН, ТРИФОСФОПИРИДИННУКЛЕОТИД, ТРИФОСФОПИРИДИННУКЛЕОТИДФОСФАТ, НАДФH
German COENZYM A A 02, NADP, Coenzym II, Nicotinamid-Adenin-Dinucleotid-Phosphat, Triphosphopyridinnucleotid
Italian Nicotinammide adenina dinucleotide fosfato, NADPH, Trifosfopiridina nucleotide, NADP
Polish NADP, Fosforan dwunukleotydu nikotynoamidoadeninowego
Japanese コデヒドロゲナーゼ2, ニコチンアミドアデニンジヌクレオチドリン酸, トリホスホピリジンヌクレオチド, 補酵素2
Norwegian NADPH, Trifosfopyridin-nukleotid, NADP, Nikotinamid-adenin-dinukleotidfosfat
Spanish NADPH, NADP, nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido fosfato (sustancia), nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido fosfato, Coenzima II, Nicotinamida-Adenina Dinucleotido Fosfato, Trifosfopiridina Nucleótido
Portuguese NADPH, NADP, Coenzima II, Nicotinamida-Adenina Dinucleotídeo Fosfato, Trifosfopiridina Nucleotídeo
French NADP, Nicotinamide adénine dinucléotide phosphate
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Oxidative Phosphorylation (C0030013)

Definition (GO) The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP that accompanies the oxidation of a metabolite through the operation of the respiratory chain. Oxidation of compounds establishes a proton gradient across the membrane, providing the energy for ATP synthesis. [ISBN:0198506732, ISBN:0471331309]
Definition (MSH) Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Definition (CSP) electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
MSH D010085
SnomedCT 5410007
English Oxidative Phosphorylation, Oxidative Phosphorylations, Phosphorylation, Oxidative, Phosphorylations, Oxidative, respiratory-chain phosphorylation, PHOS OX, OX PHOS, Oxidative phosphorylation, function, ATP biosynthesis (oxidative), ATP cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative phosphorylation, function (observable entity), Oxidative phosphorylation (function), Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway
Swedish Oxidativ fosforylering
Czech oxidační fosforylace, oxidativní fosforylace
Finnish Oksidatiivinen fosforylaatio
Russian FOSFORILIROVANIE OKISLITEL'NOE, OKISLITEL'NOE FOSFORILIROVANIE, ОКИСЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ФОСФОРИЛИРОВАНИЕ, ФОСФОРИЛИРОВАНИЕ ОКИСЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ
Japanese 酸化的リン酸化, 酸化的りん酸化, 酸化的燐酸化
Polish Fosforylacja oksydacyjna
Spanish fosforilación oxidativa (entidad observable), fosforilación oxidativa (función), fosforilación oxidativa, Fosforilación Oxidativa
French Phosphorylation oxydative
German Oxidative Phosphorylierung
Italian Fosforilazione ossidativa
Dutch Fosforylering, oxidatieve, Oxidatieve fosforylering
Portuguese Fosforilação Oxidativa
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Phosphocreatine (C0031634)

Definition (MSH) An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Definition (CSP) endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates; it has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D010725
SnomedCT 16984006
English Creatine Phosphate, Phosphate, Creatine, Phosphocreatine, Phosphorylcreatine, Glycine, N-(imino(phosphonoamino)methyl)-N-methyl-, Phosphocreatine [Chemical/Ingredient], creatine phosphate, fosfocreatine, Phosphocreatine (substance), phosphocreatine
Swedish Fosfokreatin
Czech fosfokreatin, kreatinfosfát
Finnish Kreatiinifosfaatti
Russian KREATINFOSFAT, FOSFOKREATIN, КРЕАТИНФОСФАТ, ФОСФОКРЕАТИН
Japanese クレアチンリン酸, クレアチンりん酸, ホスホクレアチン, クレアチン燐酸
French Créatine phosphate, Acide créatine-phosphorique, Phosphagène, Phosphocréatine
Italian Fosforilcreatina, Creatina fosfato, Fosfocreatina
Polish Fosforan kreatyny, Fosfokreatyna
Spanish fosfocreatina (sustancia), fosfocreatina, Fosfato de Creatina, Fosfocreatina
German Creatinphosphat, Phosphocreatin
Portuguese Fosfato de Creatina, Fosfocreatina
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


S-Adenosylmethionine (C0036002)

Definition (NCI) The active sulfonium form of methionine that is formed when methionine reacts with ATP and which acts as a methyl group donor in various transmethylation reactions.
Definition (MSH) Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
Definition (CSP) physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms; possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D012436
SnomedCT 441816007, 441671005
English Ademetionine, S Adenosylmethionine, S adenosylmethionine, Adenosine, 5'-((3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)methylsulfonio)-5'-deoxy-, inner salt, (3S)-, AdoMet, ADENOSYLMETHIONINE A S, 5'-[(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)methylsulfonio]-5'-deoxyadenosine Hydroxide, Inner Salt, S-Adenosyl-l-methionine, SAM, ademetionine (medication), SAMe, S-adenosylmethionine (medication), S-adenosylmethionine, S-Adenosyl-methionine, Ademetionine (product), Ademetionine (substance), S-Adenosylmethionine [Chemical/Ingredient], s-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), s adenosylmethionine, adomet, sam, s-adenosylmethionine, (+-)-5'-((R*)-((R*)-3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)methylsulfonio)-5'-deoxyadenosine Hydroxide, Inner Salt, Methionine, S-adenosyl-, DL-, S-Adenosyl-DL-methionine, ademetionine, ADEMETIONINE, S-Adenosylmethionine, S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE
Swedish S-adenosylmetionin
Czech S-adenosylmethionin
Finnish S-adenosyylimetioniini
Russian S-ADENOZILMETIONIN, S-АДЕНОЗИЛМЕТИОНИН
Japanese 活性メチオニン, S-アデノシル-L-メチオニン, アデメチオニン, セリタン, メチオニルアデノシン, アデノシルメチオニン, S-アデノシルメチオニン
French S-Adénosyl-méthionine, Adénosylméthionine, Adémétionine, S-Adénosylméthionine, SAMe
Italian Ademetionina, AdoMet, S-Adenosilmetionina
German ADENOSYLMETHIONIN A S, AdoMet, S-Adenosylmethionin
Spanish ademetionina, ademetionina (producto), ademetionina (sustancia), AdoMet, S-Adenosilmetionina
Polish S-adenozylometionina
Portuguese AdoMet, S-Adenosilmetionina
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Tetrahydrofolates (C0039669)

Definition (MSH) Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.
Concepts Organic Chemical (T109) , Vitamin (T127)
MSH D013763
English Tetrahydrofolates, Tetrahydrofolates [Chemical/Ingredient]
Swedish Tetrahydrofolater
Czech tetrahydrofoláty
Finnish Tetraydrofolaatit
Russian TETRAGIDROFOLIATY, ТЕТРАГИДРОФОЛЯТЫ
Japanese テトラヒドロ葉酸, L(-)-5,6,7,8-テトラヒドロ葉酸
Polish Tetrahydrofoliany
Norwegian Tetrahydrofolater
Portuguese Tetra-Hidrofolatos, Tetraidrofolatos
French Tétrahydrofolates
German Tetrahydrofolate
Italian Tetraidrofolati
Spanish Tetrahidrofolatos
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Thiamine Pyrophosphate (C0039848)

Definition (CSP) biologically active form of thiamin and a cofactor for many oxidative decarboxylation reactions in carbohydrate metabolism.
Definition (MSH) The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109) , Vitamin (T127)
MSH D013835
SnomedCT 259661002, 61768002
LNC LP15887-0, MTHU014005
English Cocarboxylase, Pyrophosphate, Thiamine, Thiamine Diphosphate, Thiazolium, 3-((4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dioxa-4,6-diphosphahex-1-yl)-, chloride, P,P'-dioxide, TPP, cocarboxylase (medication), vitamins thiamine pyrophosphate, vitamins cocarboxylase, thiamine pyrophosphate (medication), cocarboxylase, Thiamine Pyrophosphate [Chemical/Ingredient], tpp, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), Thiamine Pyrophosphate, COCARBOXYLASE, thiamine pyrophosphate, Pyrophosphoric Ester of Thiamine, Thiamin pyrophosphate, Thiamine pyrophosphate, Thiamine pyrophosphate (substance)
Swedish Tiaminpyrofosfat
Czech kokarboxylasa, thiaminpyrofosfát
Finnish Tiamiinipyrofosfaatti
Russian TDF, KOKARBOKSILAZA, TIAMINDIFOSFAT, TIAMINPIROFOSFAT, КОКАРБОКСИЛАЗА, ТДФ, ТИАМИНДИФОСФАТ, ТИАМИНПИРОФОСФАТ
Japanese コカルボキシラーゼ, チアミンピロりん酸, チアミンピロリン酸, チアミン二りん酸, サイアミンピロりん酸, サイアミンピロリン酸, サイアミンピロ燐酸, チアミンピロ燐酸, チアミン二リン酸
Polish Kokarboksylaza, Pirofosforan tiaminy
Norwegian Tiaminpyrofosfat, Tiamindifosfat, Cokarboksylase
Spanish pirofosfato de tiamina (sustancia), pirofosfato de tiamina, Cocarboxilasa, Difosfato de Tiamina, Tiamina Pirofosfato
French Thiamine pyrophosphate, Tpp
German Cocarboxylase, Thiamindiphosphat, Thiaminpyrophosphat
Italian Tiamina pirofosfato
Portuguese Cocarboxilase, Difosfato de Tiamina, Tiamina Pirofosfato
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Uridine Diphosphate Glucose (C0041988)

Definition (MSH) A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Definition (CSP) glucose carrier compound which serves as an intermediate between glucose-1-phosphate and its derivatives such as galactose and glycogen.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114) , Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH D014532
SnomedCT 70391009
English Diphosphate Glucose, Uridine, Diphosphoglucose, Uridine, Glucose, UDP, Glucose, Uridine Diphosphate, UDP Glucose, UDPG, Uridine Diphosphoglucose, uridine diphosphate glucose, Uridine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), P'-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl ester, UDP-Uridyl diphosphate glucose, Uridine Diphosphate Glucose, UDP glucose, Uridine Diphosphate Glucose [Chemical/Ingredient], Uridine diphosphate glucose, UDP - Uridyl diphosphate glucose, Uridyl diphosphate glucose, Uridine diphosphate glucose (substance)
Swedish Uridindifosfatglukos
Czech uridindifosfátglukosa
Finnish Uridiinidifosfaattiglukoosi
Russian URIDINDIFOSFATGLIUKOZA, UDF-GLIUKOZA, URIDINDIFOSFOGLIUKOZA, UDFG, УДФГ, УДФ-ГЛЮКОЗА, УРИДИНДИФОСФАТГЛЮКОЗА, УРИДИНДИФОСФОГЛЮКОЗА
Polish Glukozodifosforan urydyny, Urydynodifosforan glukozy, UDPG
Croatian URIDINDIFOSFOGLUKOZA
Japanese ウリジン二リン酸グルコース, UDPグルコース, ウリジンジホスホグルコース, ウリジン二りん酸グルコース, ウリジン二燐酸グルコース
Portuguese Uridina Difosfato Glucose, UDPG, UDP Glucose, Uridina Difosfoglucose
Spanish glucosa de uridina difosfato (sustancia), glucosa de uridina difosfato, UDPG, UDP Glucosa, Uridina Difosfato Glucosa, Uridina Difosfoglucosa
French UDP glucose, Uridine diphosphate glucose, Uridine diphosphoglucose
German UDP-Glucose, UDPG, Uridindiphosphat-Glucose, Uridindiphosphoglucose
Italian Uridina di glucosio difosfato
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Uridine Triphosphate (C0042010)

Definition (MSH) Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Definition (CSP) nucleotide, the 5'-triphosphate of uridine; an activated precursor in the synthesis of RNA and of UDP linked hexoses involved in glycogen and glycoprotein metabolism.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D014544
SnomedCT 22604005
English Triphosphate, Uridine, Uridine Triphosphate, UTP, Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate), URPPP, Uridine Triphosphate [Chemical/Ingredient], uridine triphosphate, utp, Uridine triphosphate, Uridine triphosphate (substance)
Swedish Uridintrifosfat
Czech uridintrifosfát, UTP
Finnish Uridiinitrifosfaatti
Russian UTF, URIDINTRIFOSFAT, УРИДИНТРИФОСФАТ, УТФ
Japanese ウリジン三リン酸, ウリジン5'-三リン酸, ウリジン三りん酸, ウリジン三燐酸
Polish Urydynotrifosforan, UTP
Croatian URIDIN-TRIFOSFAT
Spanish Trifosfato de Uridina, uridina trifosfato (sustancia), uridina trifosfato, UTP, Uridina Trifosfato
French UTP, Uridine triphosphate
German UTP, Uridintriphosphat
Italian Uridina trifosfato
Portuguese UTP, Uridina Trifosfato
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


electron transport chain (C2244392)

Definition (GO) A process in which a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors to any of several different terminal electron acceptors to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. [GOC:mtg_electron_transport]
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
English electron transport chain
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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