Endocrinology Book

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Euglycemic Ketoacidosis

Aka: Euglycemic Ketoacidosis, Euglycemic DKA
  1. See Also
    1. SGLT Inhibitor
    2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    3. Metabolic Acidosis with Anion Gap
    4. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis
    5. Starvation Ketoacidosis
  2. Epidemiology: SGLT2 Inhibitor Associated Ketosis
    1. Initially 73 reported cases in 2 years for patients on SGLT2 Inhibitors with Serum Glucose <250 mg/dl
    2. Subsequently 2500 cases with patients on SGLT2 Inhibitors reported to FDA
      1. Fadini (2017) Diebetologia 60(8): 1385-9 [PubMed]
  3. Mechanism: SGLT2 Inhibitor Associated Ketosis
    1. Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitor (SGLT2 Inhibitor) are Oral Hypoglycemic agents in Type II Diabetes
    2. SGLT2 Inhibitors block Glucose reabsorption in the Kidneys, with Glucose excreted in the urine
    3. Results in lower Blood Sugars, results in decreased Insulin release
    4. May result in increased Fatty Acid breakdown and Ketone production due to Hypoglycemia
      1. SGLT2 Inhibitor may also directly increase Fatty Acid breakdown and Ketone production
  4. Risk Factors: SGLT2 Inhibitor Associated Ketosis
    1. Increased risk with renal Impairment (as well as Dehydration, acute illness)
      1. Avoid Farxiga (Dapagliflozin) if GFR <60 ml/min
      2. Avoid Invokana (Canagliflozin) and Jardiance (Empagliflozin) if GFR <45 ml/min
  5. Symptoms
    1. Onset as early as first 2 weeks of starting an SGLT2 Inhibitors
    2. Nausea and Vomiting
    3. Fatigue
    4. Malaise
  6. Signs
    1. Dehydration
    2. Tachypnea
    3. Sinus Tachycardia
    4. Confusion
  7. Labs
    1. Metabolic Acidosis with Anion Gap
    2. Serum Ketones increased (but Urine Ketones often normal)
      1. Serum Beta-Hydroxybutyrate >3.8 mmol/l
    3. Serum Glucose paradoxically normal
  8. Differential Diagnosis
    1. See Metabolic Acidosis with Anion Gap
    2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    3. Alcohol Ketoacidosis (chronic Alcohol Abuse)
    4. Starvation Ketoacidosis
    5. Pregnancy
    6. Sepsis
    7. Pancreatitis
    8. Post-operative Bariatric Surgery
  9. Management: SGLT2 Inhibitor Associated Ketosis
    1. Similar management as with Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management
    2. Potassium Replacement if <3.5 meq/dl before Insulin initiated
    3. Initiate fluid bolus
    4. Start D5 or D10 infusion
    5. Start Insulin 0.1 units/kg/h infusion (do not give Insulin bolus)
      1. Confirm normal Potassium (>3.5 meq/dl) before initiating Insulin
  10. Prevention
    1. Hold SGLT2 Inhibitor before sustained exertional activity (e.g. marathon run)
    2. Discontinue SGLT2 Inhibitors when significant acute medical stressors are present (e.g. hospital admission)
  11. Resources
    1. SGLT2 Inhibitors and Euglycemic DKA (FDA)
      1. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm446845.htm
  12. References
    1. Swaminathan and Hayes in Herbert (2019) EM:Rap 19(6): 12
    2. Long and Lentz (2021) EM:Rap 21(8): 15-6

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