Emergency Medicine Book



Aka: Decontamination, M291, Hypochlorite
  1. See Also
    1. Chemical Weapon
    2. Biological Weapon (Bioterrorism)
    3. Biological Neurotoxin
    4. Decontamination After Toxin Exposure
    5. Decontamination in Children
  2. Indications
    1. Chemical Weapon Exposure
    2. Toxin Exposure
  3. Precautions
    1. Rescuers should wear full Personal Protective Equipment
  4. Protocol: Step 1 - Removal of contaminated clothing and triage
    1. See Contaminated Casualty Management
  5. Protocol: Step 2 - Physical Removal of contaminant within 1-2 minutes
    1. Preferred method for Decontamination: Shower
      1. Immediate rinsing with copious water and soap
    2. Alternatives if water not available or limited
      1. Dry powder: Soap detergent, earth, flour
      2. Wipe with wet tissue paper
  6. Protocol: Step 3 - Decontamination Agents
    1. M291 Resin Kit for spot Decontamination of skin
      1. Wallet of 6 individual Decontamination packets
      2. Pads impregnated with Ambergard XE-555 Resin
      3. Pad scrubbed over contaminated skin
        1. Absorbs chemical agent with carbonaceous material
        2. Ion exchange resin neutralizes agent
    2. Hypochlorite 0.5% (1:9 dilution of 5% bleach)
      1. Do not use full strength Hypochlorite (5%)
      2. Full strength increases toxicity and lowers LD50
  7. Protocol: Other Measures
    1. Eye Irrigation for chemical eye burn
    2. Eye Irrigation until Eye pH 7 with water or saline
  8. Protocol: Certification of Decontamination
    1. M-8 Paper
    2. M-9 Tape
    3. M256A1 Ticket
    4. Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM)

Decontamination (C0011121)

Definition (NCI) To rid of contamination.
Definition (MSH) The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D003666
SnomedCT 409530006
LNC LA17599-4
English Decontamination, decontamination, decontamination (treatment), Decontaminate, Decontamination (from gases, chemicals, etc.), Decontamination (procedure)
Swedish Sanering
Czech dekontaminace
Finnish Dekontaminaatio
Polish Dekontaminacja
Norwegian Dekontaminering
French Décontamination
German Dekontamination
Italian Decontaminazione
Spanish descontaminación (procedimiento), descontaminación, Descontaminación
Dutch Decontaminatie
Portuguese Descontaminação
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Hypochlorite (C0122922)

Concepts Element, Ion, or Isotope (T196)
MSH D006997
Portuguese Hipoclorito
Spanish Hipoclorito
French Hypochlorite
German Hypochlorit
English ClO, hypochlorite, clo, Hypochlorite
Norwegian Hypokloritt
Italian Ipoclorito
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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