Emergency Medicine Book


IV Access

Aka: IV Access, Intravenous Access, Venous Cannula Insertion, Vascular Access
  1. See Also
    1. Peripheral IV Access
    2. Central IV Access
    3. Intraosseous Access
    4. Ultrasound-Guided Internal Jugular Vein Catheterization
    5. Ultrasound-Guided Antecubital Line
    6. Umbilical Artery Catheter
    7. Umbilical Vein Catheter
    8. Bloodstream Infections in Hemodialysis
    9. Hypodermoclysis
    10. Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CRBI)
    11. Difficult Intravenous Access in Children
  2. Approach: Peripheral Access
    1. Peripheral IV Access (default initial line)
      1. Gauge 18 or larger is preferred
      2. Initial Resuscitation with fluids
        1. Fluid infusion via 18 gauge peripheral IV is faster than via a triple lumen central catheter
      3. Medication administration including antibiotics
      4. Intravenous Contrast administration (reliable 18 gauge IV needed for CTA, PE studies)
      5. Initial Vasopressors may be used peripherally if reliable large bore IV (until central access is obtained)
      6. Allows for venous lab samples on placement and later
        1. Requires wasting part of sample, and then Flushing line
    2. Intraosseous Access
      1. Rapid landmark based placement with multiple available sites (e.g. proximal tibia, Humerus)
      2. Emergent Vascular Access for Resuscitation when peripheral IV cannot be immediately placed
      3. Allows for infusion of most fluids and medications including Vasopressors (but not Sodium Bicarbonate)
    3. Midline Venous Catheter (Ultrasound-Guided Antecubital Line)
      1. Alternative to central venous access when standard peripheral lines are difficult
      2. Extravasation is more common with deep brachial vein IVs
    4. Rapid Infusion Catheter (RIC Line)
      1. Converts a 18-20 gauge peripheral IV into a large bore line (8 Fr)
        1. Seldinger wire is threaded through peripheral line and peripheral IV is removed
        2. Skin is nicked at IV entry site and dilator is threaded over wire and through skin
        3. Catheter is threaded over wire and into vein and wire is removed
      2. Allows for high flow rates via peripheral line
      3. Risk of destroying peripheral vein by threading it with too large of a catheter
  3. Approach: Central Access
    1. See Central IV Access
    2. Background
      1. Central Lines are sewn in place and typically more secure than peripheral lines which may be dislodged
      2. Internal Jugular Veins are preferred central access points
        1. However, in Resuscitation, consider femoral lines which are out of way of Resuscitation efforts
        2. Convert femoral lines to other sites in first 48 hours
    3. Central Line Types
      1. Triple Lumen Catheters
        1. Best for infusing multiple medications (including Vasopressors)
        2. Slower infusion rates (under pressure) than 18 gauge peripheral IVs
      2. Introducer Catheters
        1. Largest bore of the central catheter options offering high infusion rates
        2. Weingart recommends bypassing side port with commercially available product
      3. Hemodialysis Catheters
        1. Large bore catheter (12-13 french) with 2 ports
  4. References
    1. Weingart and Swaminathan in Herbert (2021) EM:Rap 21(4): 5-7

Venous cannula insertion (C0398266)

Definition (PNDS) Establishes and maintains peripheral IV access to administer IV fluids, medications, and blood products per physician order.
Concepts Health Care Activity (T058)
ICD10 738
SnomedCT 392230005, 91575007, 151025006, 58983009, 151031009, 392231009
CPT 36011, 36012
Italian Cateterismo venoso
Dutch katheterisatie veneus, veneuze katheterisatie
French Cathétérisme veineux, Cathétérisation veineuse
German Katheterisierung, Vene, Katheterisierung venoes
English Venous cannula insertion, Venous catheter insertion, Venous cannulation, Needling, needl, vein catheterization, venous catheterization, intravenous cannulation, venous line insertion, needling, venous cannulation, venous catheter insertion, Catheterisation venous, Catheterization venous, Venous cannula insertion (procedure), Catheterization of vein, Vein catheter insertion, Venous line insertion, Intravenous cannulation, Venous catheterization, Venous catheterisation, Catheterisation of vein, Catheterization of vein (procedure), Establishes IV access, Insertion of catheter into vein, Intravenous cannulation (procedure), Introduction of catheter into vein, Catheterization of vein, NOS, Introduction of catheter into vein, NOS, Insertion of catheter into vein, NOS, Venous catheterization, NOS
Portuguese Cateterismo venoso, Cateterização venosa
Japanese 静脈カテーテル留置, ジョウミャクカテーテルリュウチ
Czech Zavedení žilního katéru, Zavedení žilního katétru
Hungarian Vénás katéterezés
Spanish introducción de un catéter en una vena, inserción de un catéter en una vena, cateterismo de una vena, cateterismo venoso, cateterismo de una vena (procedimiento), canulación intravenosa (procedimiento), canulación intravenosa, cateterismo de vena (procedimiento), cateterismo de vena, Cateterismo venoso
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

You are currently viewing the original 'fpnotebook.com\legacy' version of this website. Internet Explorer 8.0 and older will automatically be redirected to this legacy version.

If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Another, mobile version is also available which should function on both newer and older web browsers.

Please Contact Me as you run across problems with any of these versions on the website.

Navigation Tree