Emergency Medicine Book


Diffuse Axonal Injury

Aka: Diffuse Axonal Injury
  1. Pathophysiology
    1. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury from rotational acceleration and deceleration forces
    2. Affects the grey matter-white matter junctions
  2. Signs
    1. Severe Head Injury (high velocity impact or deceleration injury)
      1. Coma or severe confusion
      2. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 8 or less
    2. Autonomic Dysfunction
      1. Fever
      2. Hypertension
      3. Diaphoresis
  3. Imaging
    1. CT Head
      1. Diffuse cerebral swelling
      2. White matter blends into gray
      3. Punctate Hemorrhages
    2. MRI Brain
      1. Punctate Hemorrhages within white matter tracts
  4. Management
    1. Neurosurgery Consultation
    2. Intracranial Pressure monitoring and other neurosurgical intervention may be indicated
  5. References
    1. Carney (2017) Neurosurgery 80(1): 6-15 [PubMed]

Diffuse Axonal Injury (C0752219)

Definition (MSH) A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
MSH D020833
English Diffuse axonal injury, DIFFUSE AXONAL INJ, AXONAL INJ DIFFUSE, DAI (Diffuse Axonal Injury), Axonal Injuries, Diffuse, Axonal Injury, Diffuse, Diffuse Axonal Injuries, Diffuse Axonal Injury, Injuries, Diffuse Axonal, Injury, Diffuse Axonal, Diffuse Axonal Injury [Disease/Finding], diffuse axonal injury, axonal diffuse injury, diffuse axonal injuries, DAIs (Diffuse Axonal Injury)
Dutch diffuus axonaal letsel, Axonaal letsel, diffuus, Diffuus axonaal letsel, Letsel, diffuus axonaal
German diffuse Axonverletzung, Axonenverletzung, diffuse, Diffuse Axonenverletzung
Portuguese Lesão axónica difusa, Lesão Axônica Difusa, Lesão Axonal Difusa
Spanish Daño axonal difuso, Lesión Axónica Difusa, Lesión Axonal Difusa, Traumatismo Axonal Difuso
Swedish Diffus axonskada
Japanese ビマンセイジクサクソンショウ, びまん性軸索損傷, 軸索損傷-びまん性, び漫性軸索損傷
Czech difuzní axonální poranění, Difúzní axonální poranění
Finnish Diffuusi aksonivaurio
Polish Urazy aksonalne rozsiane, Uszkodzenie aksonalne rozsiane
Hungarian Diffúz axon-károsodás
Norwegian Diffus aksonal skade, Diffus aksonskade
Italian Lesione assonica diffusa
French Lésion axonale diffuse, Traumatisme axonal diffus, Atteinte axonale diffuse, LAD (Lésion Axonale Diffuse)
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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