Cardiovascular Medicine Book



Aka: Cardiomyopathy, Myocardial Disease, Primary Cardiomyopathy, Secondary Cardiomyopathy, Cardiomyopathy Causes
  1. See Also
    1. Congestive Heart Failure
    2. Myocarditis
    3. Pericarditis
  2. Images
    1. Cardiomyopathy Types
      1. cvCardiomyopathy.png
  3. Causes: Primary Cardiomyopathy (intrinsic, isolated cardiac effects)
    1. Acquired Primary Cardiomyopathy
      1. See Myocarditis
      2. Tachycardia induced Cardiomyopathy
        1. Atrial Fibrillation with persistent rapid ventricular rate
        2. Grogan's Syndrome
      3. Takotsuba Cardiomyopathy (Stress Cardiomyopathy)
      4. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy (or Postpartum Cardiomyopathy)
        1. Associated with Obesity, age over 30 years, Multiparity, and Preeclampsia
        2. Onset from third trimester to five months postpartum
    2. Genetic Primary Cardiomyopathy
      1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
        1. Autosomal Dominant condition with Incidence of 1 in 500
        2. Leading cause of Sudden Death in Athletes
      2. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (rare, hereditary)
      3. Left ventricular compaction
      4. Other genetic disorders
        1. Ion channel disorder
        2. Mitochondrial Myopathy
    3. Mixed Primary Cardiomyopathy
      1. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (rare)
      2. Dilated Cardiomyopathy
        1. Most common Cardiomyopathy
        2. Third leading cause of Heart Failure behind Coronary Artery Disease and Hypertension
  4. Causes: Secondary Cardiomyopathy (extrinsic or systemic condition related)
    1. See Myocarditis
    2. Autoimmune, Collagen Vascular Disease or inflammatory conditions
      1. Dermatomyositis
      2. Polyarteritis Nodosa
      3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
      4. Sarcoidosis
      5. Scleroderma
      6. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    3. Endocrine conditions
      1. Acromegaly
      2. Diabetes Mellitus
        1. Multi-factorial (LVH, micro/macro coronary disease, endothelial dysfunction, Autonomic Dysfunction)
      3. Hyperparathyroidism
      4. Hyperthyroidism (high output Heart Failure)
      5. Hypothyroidism
      6. Obesity
      7. Pheochromocytoma
      8. Paget's Disease (high output Heart Failure)
    4. Infectious conditions
      1. Parasitic Infections
        1. Chagas Disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, most common Myocarditis cause wordwide)
        2. Trichinella species (Trichinosis roundworm)
        3. Taenia solium (Cysticercosis)
        4. Entamoeba histolytica (Amoebiasis)
      2. Viral Infections
        1. Parvovirus B19 (most common Myocarditis cause in U.S. in 2017)
        2. Human Herpes Virus 6 (HH6)
        3. Coxsackie Virus B (previously most common in U.S.)
        4. Covid19
        5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
        6. Hepatitis C
        7. Adenovirus
        8. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV, Mononucleosis)
        9. Influenza
        10. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
      3. Bacterial Infections
        1. Rickettsia
        2. Mycobacteria
        3. Streptococcal Pharyngitis (with secondary Acute Rheumatic Fever, Myocarditis)
        4. Lyme Disease (strongly consider in endemic areas as cause of Myocarditis)
        5. Diphtheria (toxin-induced Myocarditis)
    5. Infiltrative conditions
      1. Amyloidosis
      2. Gaucher Disease
      3. Hunter Syndrome
      4. Hurler Syndrome
    6. Neuromuscular conditions and Glycogen Storage Disease
      1. Glycogen Storage Disease
      2. Neurofibromatosis
      3. Barth Syndrome
      4. Muscular Dystrophy
        1. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
        2. Becker Muscular Dystrophy
        3. Myotonic Dystrophy
    7. Nutritional deficiency
      1. Protein Malnutrition (Kwashiorkor)
      2. Thiamine deficiency (Wet Beriberi)
      3. Niacin Deficiency (Pellagra)
      4. Vitamin C Deficiency (Scurvy)
      5. L-Carnitine Deficiency
      6. Selenium Deficiency
      7. Severe Anemia (high output Heart Failure)
    8. Toxic-metabolic conditions
      1. Anabolic Steroids
      2. Chloroquine (Aralen)
      3. Hemochromatosis
      4. Radiation Exposure including Radiation Therapy
      5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning (Myocarditis)
      6. Chronic Stimulant Abuse
        1. Cocaine and other Catecholamines
        2. Methylphenidate
      7. Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy
        1. See Alcohol Related Cardiac Effects
      8. Anthracycline Chemotherapy
        1. Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Doxil)
        2. Daunorubicin (Cerubidine)
        3. Epirubicin (Ellence)
        4. Idarubicin
        5. Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
        6. Valrubicin
      9. Other Chemotherapeutic agents
        1. Cyclophosphamide
      10. Heavy Metal Poisoning
        1. Arsenic Poisoning
        2. Cobalt Poisoning
        3. Lead Poisoning
        4. Mercury Poisoning
      11. Other medications
        1. Clozapine and other Antipsychotics (Myocarditis)
    9. Miscellaneous conditions
      1. Arteriovenous Fistula (high output Heart Failure)
  5. Findings
    1. See Congestive Heart Failure
  6. Management
    1. See Congestive Heart Failure
    2. See causative condition for specific management
  7. References
    1. (1995) Circulation 92:2764-84 [PubMed]
    2. (1999) J Card Fail 5:357-82 [PubMed]
    3. Brieler (2017) Am Fam Physician 96(10):640-6 [PubMed]
    4. Hunt (2009) Circulation 119(14):e391-479 [PubMed]
    5. King (2012) Am Fam Physician 85(12): 1161-8 [PubMed]
    6. Luk (2009) J Clin Pathol 62(3): 219-25 [PubMed]
    7. Maron (2006) Circulation 113(14): 1807-16 [PubMed]
    8. Senni (1997) Mayo Clin Proc 72:453-60 [PubMed]
    9. Wexler (2009) Am Fam Physician 79(9): 778-84 [PubMed]

Cardiomyopathies, Primary (C0033141)

Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) Disease of the heart muscle associated with electrical or mechanical dysfunction, in which the heart is the sole or predominantly involved organ.
Definition (SCTSPA) Enfermedad del músculo cardíaco asociado con una disfunción eléctrica o mecánica, en la cual el corazón es el único órgano afectado o el comprometido en forma predominante.
Definition (NCI) A disease of the heart muscle or myocardium proper whose cause is unknown.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D009202
SnomedCT 20072003, 89461002
English Disease, Primary Myocardial, Diseases, Primary Myocardial, Myocardial Disease, Primary, Myocardial Diseases, Primary, Primary Myocardial Disease, Primary Myocardial Diseases, CARDIOMYOPATHY PRIMARY, Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy, PRIMARY MYOCARDIAL DIS, MYOCARDIAL DIS PRIMARY, Cardiomyopathy primary NOS, Cardiomyopathy;primary, idiopathic cardiomyopathy, cardiomyopathy primary, Idiopathic cardiomegaly, Idiopathic cardiomyopathy, Idiopathic cardiomyopathy (disorder), Primary idiopathic cardiomyopathy, Cardiomyopathy primary, Primary cardiomyopathy, Primary cardiomyopathy (disorder), cardiomegaly; idiopathic, cardiomyopathy; primary, idiopathic; cardiomegaly, myocardium; disease, primary (idiopathic), primary; cardiomyopathy, Cardiomyopathy, Primary, Primary Cardiomyopathies, Primary Cardiomyopathy, Cardiomyopathies, Primary, Cardiomyopathy, idiopathic, primary cardiomyopathy
Dutch hartspierziekte NAO primair, idiopathische hartvergroting, hartspierziekte primair, cardiomegalie; idiopathisch, cardiomyopathie; primair, idiopathisch; cardiomegalie, myocard; aandoening, primair (idiopathisch), primair; cardiomyopathie, Myocardziekte, primaire
French Cardiomyopathie primaire SAI, Cardiomégalie idiopathique, Cardiomyopathie primaire, Cardiomyopathies primitives
German idiopathische Kardiomegalie, Kardiomyopathie primaer NNB, primaere Kardiomyopathie, Myokardkrankheiten, primäre
Italian Cardiomiopatia primitiva NAS, Cardiomiopatia primitiva, Cardiomegalia idiopatica, Cardiomiopatie primarie
Portuguese Cardiomegalia idiopática, Miocardiopatia primária NE, Miocardiopatia primária, Miocardiopatias Primárias
Spanish Cardiomiopatía primaria NEOM, Cardiomegalia idiopática, Cardiomiopatía primaria, miocardiopatía idiopática primaria, miocardiopatía idiopática, miocardiopatía idiopática (trastorno), miocardiopatía primaria (trastorno), miocardiopatía primaria, Miocardiopatías Primarias
Japanese 特発性心拡大, 原発性心筋症, 原発性心筋症NOS, トクハツセイシンカクダイ, ゲンパツセイシンキンショウNOS, ゲンパツセイシンキンショウ
Czech kardiomyopatie primární, Idiopatická kardiomegalie, Primární kardiomyopatie, Primární kardiomyopatie NOS, primární kardiomyopatie
Hungarian Cardiomyopathia, primaer, Cardiomyopathia, primaer k.m.n., Idiopathiás cardiomegalia
Norwegian Primære hjertemuskelsykdommer, Primære kardiomyopatier, Hjertemuskelsykdommer, primære, Kardiomyopatier, primære
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Myocardial Diseases, Secondary (C0036529)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D009202
ICD9 425.9
SnomedCT 195035002, 89600009, 266244008
English Disease, Secondary Myocardial, Diseases, Secondary Myocardial, Myocardial Disease, Secondary, Secondary Myocardial Disease, Secondary Myocardial Diseases, Secondary cardiomyopathy NOS, Secondary cardiomyopathy, unspecified, CARDIOMYOPATHY SECONDARY, SECOND MYOCARDIAL DIS, CARDIOMYOPATHIES SECOND, MYOCARDIAL DIS SECOND, secondary cardiomyopathy, secondary cardiomyopathy (diagnosis), cardiomyopathy secondary, Cardiomyopathy secondary NOS, Second cardiomyopath NOS, Myocardial Diseases, Secondary, Cardiomyopathy;secondary, cardiomyopathies secondary, Secondary cardiomyopathy (disorder), Secondary cardiomyopathy, Secondary cardiomyopathy NOS (disorder), Cardiomyopathy secondary, cardiomyopathy; secondary, secondary; cardiomyopathy, Secondary cardiomyopathy, NOS, Cardiomyopathy, Secondary, Secondary Cardiomyopathies, Secondary Cardiomyopathy, Cardiomyopathies, Secondary
Dutch hartspierziekte secundair, hartspierziekte NAO secundair, secundaire hartspierziekte, niet-gespecificeerd, cardiomyopathie; secundair, secundair; cardiomyopathie, Myocardziekte, secundaire
French Cardiomyopathie secondaire, non précisée, Cardiomyopathie secondaire, Cardiomyopathie secondaire SAI, Cardiomyopathies secondaires
German sekundaere Kardiomyopathie, unspezifisch, sekundaere Kardiomyopathie, Kardiomyopathie sekundaer NNB, Myokardkrankheiten, sekundäre
Italian Cardiomiopatia secondaria, non specificata, Cardiomiopatia secondaria, Cardiomiopatia secondaria NAS, Cardiomiopatie secondarie
Portuguese Miocardiopatia secundária NE, Miocardiopatia secundária, Miocardiopatias Secundárias
Spanish Cardiomiopatía secundaria, Cardiomiopatía secundaria NEOM, Cardiomiopatía secundaria no especificada, miocardiopatía secundaria, cardiomiopatía secundaria, SAI, miocardiopatía secundaria (trastorno), cardiomiopatía secundaria, SAI (trastorno), Miocardiopatías Secundarias
Japanese 続発性心筋症NOS, 続発性心筋症、詳細不明, 続発性心筋症, ゾクハツセイシンキンショウ, ゾクハツセイシンキンショウNOS, ゾクハツセイシンキンショウショウサイフメイ
Czech kardiomyopatie sekundární, Sekundární kardiomyopatie NOS, Sekundární kardiomyopatie, blíže neurčená, Sekundární kardiomyopatie, sekundární kardiomyopatie
Hungarian Cardiomyopathia, másodlagos k.m.n., Cardiomyopathia, secundaer, Secundaer cardiomyopathia, nem meghatározott
Norwegian Sekundære kardiomyopatier, Sekundære hjertemuskelsykdommer, Kardiomyopatier, sekundære, Hjertemuskelsykdommer, sekundære
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Cardiomyopathies (C0878544)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Cardiomyopathy is the name for diseases of the heart muscle. These diseases enlarge your heart muscle or make it thicker and more rigid than normal. In rare cases, scar tissue replaces the muscle tissue.

Some people live long, healthy lives with cardiomyopathy. Some people don't even realize they have it. In others, however, it can make the heart less able to pump blood through the body. This can cause serious complications, including

Heart attacks, high blood pressure, infections, and other diseases can all cause cardiomyopathy. Some types of cardiomyopathy run in families. In many people, however, the cause is unknown. Treatment might involve medicines, surgery, other medical procedures, and lifestyle changes.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Definition (NCI_CDISC) A disease of the heart muscle or myocardium proper. Cardiomyopathies may be classified as either primary or secondary, on the basis of etiology, or on the pathophysiology of the lesion: hypertrophic, dilated, or restrictive.
Definition (NCI) A disease of the heart muscle or myocardium proper. Cardiomyopathies may be classified as either primary or secondary, on the basis of etiology, or on the pathophysiology of the lesion: hypertrophic, dilated, or restrictive.
Definition (MSH) A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
Definition (CSP) condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the myocardium, the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of heart muscle.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D009202
ICD9 425
ICD10 I42, I42.9, I51.5
SnomedCT 195037005, 266301006, 155351008, 155353006, 85898001, 57809008
LNC LP128708-7, MTHU040649
English Diseases, Myocardial, Myocardial Disease, myocardium disorder, Disease, Myocardial, Cardiomyopathy NOS, Cardiomyopathy, unspecified, MYOCARDIAL DIS, cardiomyopathy, cardiomyopathy (diagnosis), heart muscle disorder, Cardiomyopathies [Disease/Finding], myocardial disease, heart muscle disease, myocardial diseases, cardiomyopathies, Myocardiodystrophy, Cardiomyopathy NOS (disorder), disorder of myocardium, Myocardium--Diseases, CARDIOMYOPATHY, Cardiomyopathy, Myocardiopathy, Disorder of heart muscle, Disorder of myocardium, Myocardial disease, Cardiomyopathy (disorder), Myocardial disease (disorder), myocardiopathy, myocardium; disease, Cardiomyopathy, NOS, Myocardial disease, NOS, Myocardiopathy, NOS, Myocardial Diseases, Myocardiopathies, Cardiomyopathies
Italian Cardiomiopatia, Cardiomiopatia NAS, Miocardiopatie, Miocardiodistrofia, Cardiomiopatie, Malattie del miocardio
Dutch hartspierziekte NAO, myocardiodystrofie, myocard; aandoening, Cardiomyopathie, niet gespecificeerd, cardiomyopathieën, hartspierziekte, Cardiomyopathie, Myocardiopathie, Myocardziekte, Myocardziekten, Ziekte, myocard-, Ziekten, myocard-
French Cardiomyopathie SAI, CARDIOMYOPATHIE, Myocardiodystrophie, Cardiomyopathie, Cardiomyopathies, Myocardiopathies
German Kardiomyopathie NNB, KARDIOMYOPATHIE, Kardiomyopathie, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Mykokardiodystrophie, Kardiomyopathien, Kardiomyopathie, Herzmuskelkrankheiten, Myokardkrankheiten
Portuguese Miocardiopatia NE, Doenças Miocárdicas, CARDIOMIOPATIA, Miocardiodistrofia, Doenças do Miocárdio, Cardiomiopatia, Cardiomiopatias, Miocardiopatias
Spanish Cardiomiopatía NEOM, Enfermedades Miocárdicas, CARDIOMIOPATIA, Miocardiodistrofia, Cardiomyopathy NOS, miocardiopatía, SAI (trastorno), miocardiopatía, SAI, Enfermedades del Miocardio, cardiomiopatía, enfermedad del miocardio, enfermedad miocárdica (trastorno), enfermedad miocárdica, miocardiopatía (trastorno), miocardiopatía, Cardiomiopatía, Cardiomiopatías, Miocardiopatías
Japanese 心筋症NOS, シンキンショウNOS, シンキンショウ, 心筋疾患-原発性, 心筋症, 心筋障害, 続発性心筋疾患, 心筋疾患-続発性, 原発性心筋疾患, 心筋疾患, 心筋ジストロフィー, シンキンジストロフィー
Swedish Kardiomyopatier
Czech kardiomyopatie, myokardiopatie, Kardiomyopatie NOS, Chronická onemocnění myokardu, Kardiomyopatie, Dystrofie myokardu, myokard - onemocnění, nemoci myokardu
Finnish Kardiomyopatiat
Korean 심장근육병증, 상세불명의 심장근육병증
Polish Kardiomiopatie, Miokardiopatie, Choroby mięśnia sercowego wtórne, Choroby mięśnia sercowego, Choroby mięśnia sercowego pierwotne
Hungarian Cardiomyopathia, Cardiomyopathiák, Cardiomyopathia k.m.n., Myocardiodystrophyia
Croatian Kardiomiopatije
Norwegian Kardiomyopatier, Hjertemuskelsykdommer
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

You are currently viewing the original '\legacy' version of this website. Internet Explorer 8.0 and older will automatically be redirected to this legacy version.

If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Another, mobile version is also available which should function on both newer and older web browsers.

Please Contact Me as you run across problems with any of these versions on the website.

Navigation Tree