Cardiovascular Medicine Book

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Ventricular Fibrillation Management in the Adult

Aka: Ventricular Fibrillation Management in the Adult, Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Management in the Adult
  1. See Also
    1. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    2. Reversible Causes of Cardiopulmonary Arrest (5H5T)
    3. Post-Cardiac Arrest Care
  2. Management: Approach
    1. ABC Management
    2. CPR until Defibrillator available
      1. Good quality Cardiac Compressions are critical for survival (ROSC)
      2. Consider 5 cycles CPR (2 min) before defibrillating
      3. Mechanical CPR devices (Lucas, Vest-CPR, Auto-pulse) are preferred if available
    3. Defibrillation options (single shock)
      1. Manual biphasic: Device specific dose (120-200 J) or
      2. Automated External Defibrillator (AED) or
      3. Monophasic 360 joules
    4. Secure cardiopulmonary access
      1. See Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
      2. Hyperventilate with 100% oxygen
      3. Endotracheal Intubation
      4. Obtain Intravenous Access
    5. Cycles
      1. Perform 5 cycles of CPR (30:2) for total of 2 minutes
        1. Once Advanced Airway in place, give 8-10 breaths per minute (every 6-8 min) and compressions >100/minute asynchronously
        2. Rotate compressors every 2 minutes
      2. Re-evaluate rhythm with minimum interruption of Cardiac Compressions (<10 seconds)
        1. Organized Electrical activity: Check for pulse
        2. Non-shockable rhythm: See Other protocols
          1. Asystole
          2. Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA)
        3. Shockable rhythm: Defibrillate
          1. Ventricular Fibrillation
          2. Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia (V. fib or V. Tach)
      3. Repeat Defibrillation as above after each cycle
        1. Call clear
        2. Compressions need not be interrupted if mechanical CPR device is in place
      4. Administer medications once IV or IO Access obtained (see below)
        1. Administer during Cardiac Compressions (between Defibrillations)
        2. Epinephrine
          1. First dose after the second Defibrillation
          2. Repeat every 3-5 minutes
          3. May substitute all Epinephrine doses (for at least 20 minutes) with a single Vasopressin dose once
        3. Amiodarone
          1. First dose after the third Defibrillation
          2. Repeat once after the fifth Defibrillation
          3. May substitute with Lidocaine only if Amiodarone unavailable
    6. Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation (failed response to 3 or more Defibrillation attempts)
      1. Move pads
        1. Move anteroposterior Defibrillation pads to anterolateral placement (or vice versa)
      2. Dual Simultaneous Defibrillation
        1. Place Defibrillation pads in anteroposterior position and anterolateral position
        2. Discharge both Defibrillators simultaneously
        3. Cheskes (2020) Resuscitation 150:178-84 [PubMed]
  3. Management: Medications (after IV or IO Access obtained)
    1. Adrenergic Medication
      1. Vasopressin 40 Units IV for single, one time dose, replacing either the first or second Epinephrine dose OR
      2. Epinephrine 1 mg IV push (repeat every 3-5 min) or
        1. Do not use Epinephrine for 20 minutes after Vasopressin
        2. Avoid Escalating or high dose Epinephrine (e.g. 3 or 5 mg)
    2. Antiarrhythmic medication (choose one)
      1. Amiodarone (preferred)
        1. Dose 1: 300 mg IV push
        2. Dose 2: 150 mg IV push
        3. Maximum cumulative dose: 2.2 grams in 24 hours
        4. Requires pressure support after use
      2. Lidocaine (only use if Amiodarone is unavailable)
        1. Contrasted with Amiodarone, not shown to improve survival
        2. Dose 1: 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg IV push
        3. Dose 2: 0.5 to 0.75 mg/kg IV push
        4. Maximum cumulative dose: 3 mg/kg
    3. Consider adjunctive medications (specific indications)
      1. Avoid Sodium Bicarbonate as does not improve survival (out of ECC guidelines as of 2010)
      2. Magnesium Sulfate
        1. Dose: 1-2 g IV
        2. Indications
          1. Irregular, Polymorphic VT (Torsades de Pointes)
          2. Suspected Hypomagnesemia
  4. Management: Post Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC)
    1. Assess Vital Signs
    2. Support Airway and breathing
    3. Consider medications
      1. Infusion of Antiarrhythmic that converted rhythm
    4. Pursue definititive management of underlying cause
      1. Reversible Causes of Cardiopulmonary Arrest (5H5T)
    5. Initiate Hypothermia protocol
      1. Improves longterm CNS recovery post-hypoxic event
  5. Management: Example
    1. Cycle 1
      1. Perform 5 cycles of CPR (30:2) for total of 2 minutes
      2. Obtain IV Access concurrent with CPR
      3. Rhythm check and Defibrillate (Call 'clear' and <10 second cardiac compression interruption)
      4. Rotate compressor
    2. Cycle 2
      1. Perform 5 cycles of CPR (30:2) for total of 2 minutes
      2. Place Advanced Airway concurrent with CPR
      3. Apply mechanical CPR device (e.g. Lucas, Vest-CPR, Auto-pulse) if available (<10 second CPR interruption)
      4. Rhythm check and Defibrillate (Mechanical CPR device, such as Lucas, need not be stopped for Defibrillation)
    3. Cycle 3
      1. Perform CPR for 2 minutes (If Advanced Airway, give asynchronously 8-10 breaths per minute and >100 compressions/min)
      2. Administer Epinephrine 1 mg IV
      3. Treat reversible cause (e.g. contact catheterization lab if Acute Coronary Syndrome suspected)
        1. With mechanical CPR device in place, inter-hospital transport is viable despite lack of ROSC
      4. Rhythm check and Defibrillate
    4. Cycle 4
      1. Perform CPR for 2 minutes
      2. Administer Amiodarone 300 mg IV
      3. Rhythm check and Defibrillate
    5. Cycle 5
      1. Perform CPR for 2 minutes
      2. Administer Vasopressin 40 U IV
      3. Rhythm check and Defibrillate
    6. Cycle 6
      1. Perform CPR for 2 minutes
      2. Administer Amiodarone 150 mg IV
      3. Rhythm check demonstrates organized rhythm (e.g. Sinus Bradycardia)
    7. Cycle 7
      1. Check for pulse (confirm not Pulseless Electrical Activity)
      2. Amiodarone maintenance to prevent recurrent Arrhythmia
        1. Initial: 1 mg/min for 6 hours
        2. Next: 0.5 mg/min up to total cummulative dose not more than 2.2 grams
      3. Post-Resuscitation
        1. See Induced Therapeutic Hypothermia
        2. See Post-Cardiac Arrest Care
  6. References
    1. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Guidelines
      2. (2010) Guidelines for CPR and ECC [PubMed]
      3. (2005) Circulation 112(Suppl 112):IV [PubMed]
      4. (2000) Circulation, 102(Suppl I):86-9 [PubMed]

Ventricular Fibrillation (C0042510)

Definition (NCI_FDA) Arrhythmia characterized by fibrillary contractions of the ventricular muscle due to rapid repetitive excitation of myocardial fibers without coordinated contraction of the ventricle.
Definition (NCI) A disorder characterized by an electrocardiographic finding of a rapid grossly irregular ventricular rhythm with marked variability in QRS cycle length, morphology, and amplitude. The rate is typically greater than 300 bpm. (CDISC)
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by a dysrhythmia without discernible QRS complexes due to rapid repetitive excitation of myocardial fibers without coordinated contraction of the ventricles.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Ventricular Fibrillation is characterized by rapid, usually more than 300 bpm (cycle length: 180 ms or less), grossly irregular ventricular rhythm with marked variability in QRS cycle length, morphology, and amplitude.
Definition (CSP) arrhythmia characterized by fibrillary contractions of the ventricular muscle due to rapid repetitive excitation of myocardial fibers without coordinated contraction of the ventricle.
Definition (MSH) A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D014693
ICD9 427.41
ICD10 I49.01
SnomedCT 155371004, 71908006
LNC LA17073-0
English Fibrillations, Ventricular, Ventricular Fibrillations, FIBRILLATION VENTRICULAR, Fibrillation, Ventricular, VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION PAROXYSM, Cardiac arrest-ventric fibrill, VF, VFib, Ventricular Fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation (diagnosis), ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular fibrillation paroxysm, Fibrillation paroxysmal vent, Paroxysmal ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular fibrillation paroxysmal, Fibrillation ventricular, Cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular Fibrillation [Disease/Finding], fibrillation ventricular, Fibrillation;ventricular, vf, VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION, FIBRILLATION, VENTRICULAR, Ventricular fibrillation, Cardiac arrest - ventricular fibrillation, VF - Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular fibrillation (disorder), fibrillation; ventricular, ventricular; fibrillation
French FIBRILLATION VENTRICULAIRE, FV, Fibrillation ventriculaire paroxystique, Fibrillation paroxystique ventr, FIBRILLATION VENTRIC PAROXYSTIQUE, Fibrillation ventriculaire
Portuguese FIBRILACAO VENTRICULAR, Fibrilhação ventricular paroxística, FIBRILACAO VENTRICULAR PAROXISTIC, Fibrilhação ventricular, Fibrilação Ventricular
Spanish FIBRILACION VENTRICULAR, Fibrilación ventricular paroxística, FV, FIBRILACION VENTRICULAR PAROXIST, fibrilación ventricular (trastorno), fibrilación ventricular, Fibrilación ventricular, Fibrilación Ventricular
German KAMMERFLIMMERN, Kammerflimmern paroxysmal, VF, paroxysmales Kammerflimmern, KAMMERFLIMMERN PAROXYSMAL, Kammerflimmern
Dutch paroxysmale ventrikelfibrillatie, VF, ventrikelfibrilleren paroxysmaal, ventrikelfibrillatie, ventrikelfibrillatie-paroxysme, fibrilleren; ventrikel, ventrikel; fibrilleren, ventrikelfibrilleren, Fibrilleren, ventrikel-, Ventrikelfibrilleren
Italian Fibrillazione ventricolare parossistica, Fibrillazione ventricolare
Japanese 心室細動, 発作性心室細動, シンシツサイドウ, ホッサセイシンシツサイドウ
Swedish Kammarflimmer
Finnish Kammiovärinä
Czech Fibrilace komor, Paroxysmální komorová fibrilace, Paroxysmální fibrilace komor, Komorová fibrilace, komorová fibrilace, FiK, fibrilace komor
Polish Migotanie komór
Hungarian Fibrillatio, ventricularis, Ventricularis fibrillatio, Paroxysmalis ventricularis fibrillatio, Paroxysmalis kamrai fibrillatio, VF, Paroxysmalis kamrafibrillatio, Ventricularis paroxysmalis fibrillatio
Norwegian Ventrikkelflimmer, Fibrillatio ventriculorum
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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