Cardiovascular Medicine Book


Diastolic Heart Failure

Aka: Diastolic Heart Failure, Diastolic Dysfunction, Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction, HFpEF
  1. See Also
    1. Heart Failure
    2. Systolic Dysfunction
    3. See Framingham Heart Failure Diagnostic Criteria
    4. Congestive Heart Failure Exacerbation Decision Rule
    5. Ottawa Heart Failure Risk Score
  2. Definitions
    1. Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF or Diastolic Heart Failure)
      1. Signs and symptoms of Congestive Heart Failure AND
      2. Left ventricular ejection fraction >50% (some include EF >40%)
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Hypertrophic heart with impaired relaxation
      1. Stiff, less compliant left ventricle that does not adequately fill
    2. Heart meets metabolic needs
      1. But cost is a higher diastolic pressure
      2. Transmits pressures to lung vasculature (with reduced Lung Compliance)
      3. Results in pulmonary congestion
      4. Ultimately leads to right-sided Heart Failure
    3. Mechanisms
      1. Abnormal renal Sodium metabolism
      2. Decreased compliance of myocardial wall as well as arterial wall
      3. Decreased diastolic ventricular filling
  4. Epidemiology
    1. Incidence and Prevalence
      1. Prevalence: 5 Million in U.S.
      2. Incidence: 650,000 per year in U.S.
      3. Responsible for 30-50% of Congestive Heart Failure (increasing by 1% per year)
    2. Age
      1. Incidence increases with age (over 55 years)
      2. More common in elderly women
    3. Race
      1. More common in black patients
  5. Causes
    1. See Heart Failure Causes
    2. Common causes
      1. Hypertension
        1. Longstanding Uncontrolled Hypertension is the most common underlying etiology
        2. Causes Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
      2. Coronary Artery Disease
      3. Aortic Stenosis
    3. Other causes
      1. Cardiomyopathy (e.g. Amyloidosis, Sarcoidosis)
      2. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
      3. Glycogen Storage Disease
      4. Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
      5. Hemochromatosis
      6. Constrictive Pericarditis or Pericardial Effusion
      7. Other Valvular disease
  6. Risk Factors: Key Factors
    1. Advanced age
    2. Female gender
    3. Obesity
    4. Diabetes Mellitus
    5. Tobacco Abuse
  7. Risk Factors: Exacerbating Factors
    1. Tachycardia
    2. Atrial Fibrillation
    3. Increased ventricular load (volume overload)
    4. Exercise
    5. Increased salt intake
    6. NSAIDs
    7. Hyperthyroidism
    8. Infection or fever
    9. Anemia
  8. Presentations: Typical patient
    1. Elderly women with systolic Hypertension and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
    2. Comorbid Obesity or Diabetes Mellitus or Metabolic Syndrome
  9. Symptoms
    1. Dyspnea on exertion
    2. Fatigue
    3. Generalized weakness
    4. Orthopnea or paroxysmal nocturnal Dyspnea
    5. Peripheral Edema
  10. Signs
    1. Symptoms and signs overlap with Systolic Dysfunction
      1. S3 Gallup Rhythm (LR+ 4.4)
      2. Jugular Venous Distention (LR+ 7.4)
      3. Displaced apical impulse (LR+ 16)
      4. Madhok (2008) BMC Fam Pract 9:56 [PubMed]
    2. Establish Congestive Heart Failure diagnosis clinically
    3. Evaluate for Systolic Dysfunction
    4. Rule out other causes
      1. Significant valvular disease
      2. Pericardial disease (e.g. pericardial constriction)
      3. Inducible Myocardial Ischemia
    5. Document elevated left ventricle end diastolic pressure
      1. Often impractical to perform
  11. Labs
    1. See Systolic Dysfunction
    2. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
      1. Does not distinguish from Systolic Dysfunction
      2. BNP <100 or NT-BNP <300 excludes Acute Heart Failure in the Emergency Department (LR- 0.1)
      3. Martindale (2016) Acad Emerg Med 23(3); 223-42 [PubMed]
  12. Diagnosis
    1. See Framingham Heart Failure Diagnostic Criteria
    2. Transthoracic Echocardiogram
      1. See Echocardiogram in Congestive Heart Failure
      2. Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction >50%
      3. E-A Wave Ratio abnormal (evaluates for Diastolic Dysfunction)
        1. Definitions
          1. E Wave: Peak velocity diastolic mitral valve flow
          2. A Wave: Atrial contraction
        2. Interpretation
          1. Normal E-A Ratio: 1.5
          2. Early Diastolic Dysfunction: E-A Ratio <1
          3. Moderate Diastolic Dysfunction: E-A=1.5
          4. Severe Diastolic Dysfunction: E-A Ratio >2
      4. Other measures
        1. Left ventricular mass
        2. Valvular Disease
        3. Left atrial size
        4. Measurement of Tau abnormal
    3. Coronary Angiography
      1. Indicated if Angina or ischemia on other testing
  13. Management: General
    1. See Congestive Heart Failure Exacerbation Management
    2. Goals
      1. Increase Exercise capacity and physical functioning
      2. Improve diastolic function
    3. Aggressively manage Hypertension
      1. Controlling Blood Pressure is single most important factor
    4. Manage other Coronary Risk Factors
      1. Hyperlipidemia
      2. Obesity
      3. Tobacco Abuse
      4. Diabetes Mellitus
      5. Encourage regular aerobic Exercise (Exercise training is effective)
        1. Fukuta (2016) Eur J Prev Cardiol 23(10: 78-85 [PubMed]
    5. Reduce exacerbating factors
      1. Control Myocardial Ischemia
        1. Revascularization as indicated
      2. Maintain sinus rhythm and prevent Tachycardia
      3. Manage Atrial Fibrillation
        1. Treat causative conditions (e.g. Hyperthyroidism)
        2. Atrial Fibrillation Rate Control
        3. Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulation
      4. Optimize comorbidities (e.g. COPD, Anemia, Obesity)
      5. Screen and treat for Sleep Apnea
  14. Management: Medications
    1. Precautions
      1. HFpEF patients are sensitive to excessive Preload reduction (e.g. Diuretics, nitrates)
      2. Risk of weakness, Dizziness, Syncope
    2. Preferred medications in Diastolic Dysfunction
      1. Beta Blockers
        1. Maximizes diastolic filling
        2. Decreases pulse, Coronary Artery Disease, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
        3. No difference in mortality or hospitalizations
          1. van Veldhuisen (2009) J Am Coll Cardiol 53(23): 2150-8 [PubMed]
          2. Yamamoto (2013) Eur J Heart Fail 15(1): 110-8 [PubMed]
      2. ACE Inhibitor
        1. Improves myocardial relaxation and compliance
        2. Lowers Preload and Afterload
      3. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
        1. Have not reduced mortality or hospitalizations
          1. Heran (2012) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4):CD003040 [PubMed]
        2. Entresto (Sacubitril/Valsartan)
          1. Has been FDA approved for HFpEF, but evidence is weak
          2. (2021) Presc Lett 28(2): 9
          3. Sible (2016) Cardiol Rev 24(1):41-7 [PubMed]
      4. Diuretics
        1. Spironolactone
          1. Spironolactone has uncertain efficacy, but is likely beneficial and FDA approved for HFpEF
          2. May reduce HFpEF hospitalizations
          3. Kosmas (2018) Ann Transl Med 6(23): 461+PMID:30603649 [PubMed]
        2. Thiazide Diuretics
          1. Preferred agent for Hypertension
        3. Loop Diuretics
          1. Loop Diuretics are indicated for Fluid Overload
          2. If not overloaded, Loop Diuretics may lower Preload and increase symptoms
          3. Diuretics may decrease Dyspnea and acute exacerbations
          4. Risk of Hypotension, Prerenal Failure
    3. Other medications to consider
      1. Jardiance (Empagliflozin)
        1. Appears effective in reducing hospitalizations even in non-Diabetic patients with HFpEF
        2. However, best effect in reduced Ejection Fraction (even mild reduction of 40-50% EF)
        3. Anker (2021) N Engl J Med [PubMed]
    4. Medications to use with caution
      1. Nondihydropyrimidine Calcium Channel Blockers
        1. Example: Verapamil
        2. Improves diastolic function overall
        3. Avoid in Left Ventricular Dysfunction
        4. No survival benefit in Diastolic Dysfunction
      2. Dihydropyramidine Calcium Channel Blockers
        1. Example: Amlodipine
        2. Indications: Heart Rate control, Angina
        3. No survival benefit in Diastolic Dysfunction
        4. Limit use to when Beta Blocker is contraindicated
      3. Vasodilators (Nitrates, Hydralazine)
        1. Indications: Preload reduction and Angina
        2. No survival benefit in Diastolic Dysfunction
        3. Limit use to when ACE Inhibitor is contraindicated
        4. Associated with decreased Exercise tolerance
          1. Redfield (2015) N Engl J Med 373(24): 2314-24 [PubMed]
    5. Medications to avoid
      1. Digoxin
        1. Avoid except in Atrial Fibrillation
        2. No effect on mortality, but may increase hospitalizations
          1. Hashim (2014) Am J Med 127(2): 132-9 [PubMed]
  15. Prevention
    1. Control Cardiac Risk Factors
    2. Consider Cardiac Rehabilitation
  16. Complications
    1. Mortality from Diastolic Heart Failure is equivalent to Systolic Heart Failure mortality
  17. Prognosis
    1. Hospitalizations
      1. Mortality at one year after first HFpEF admission: 25%
      2. Mortality at five years after first HFpEF admission
        1. Age over 60 years: 24%
        2. Age over 80 years: 54%
    2. Factors associated with worse prognosis
      1. Higher NT-BNP levels
      2. Advanced age
      3. Diabetes Mellitus
      4. Prior Myocardial Infarction
      5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
      6. Chronic Kidney Disease
        1. Creatinine Clearance >60 ml/min/1.73 m2: Survival >80% 4 year
        2. Creatinine Clearance <20 ml/min/1.73 m2: Survival <20% 4 year
  18. References
    1. (2017) Presc Lett 24(4):20
    2. Senni (1997) Mayo Clin Proc 72:453-60 [PubMed]
    3. (1995) Circulation 92:2764-84 [PubMed]
    4. (1999) J Card Fail 5:357-82 [PubMed]
    5. Borlang (2011) Eur Heart J 32(6): 670-9 [PubMed]
    6. Gazewood (2017) Am Fam Physician 96(9): 582-8 [PubMed]
    7. Zile (2002) Circulation 105:1387-93 [PubMed]
    8. Zile (2002) Circulation 105:1503-8 [PubMed]

Diastolic dysfunction (C0520863)

Definition (NCI) Impairment in the filling of the ventricles during diastole. Causes include hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathies, coronary artery disease, chronic high blood pressure, aortic stenosis, and aging.
Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
SnomedCT 3545003
Italian Disfunzione diastolica
Japanese 拡張機能障害, カクチョウキノウショウガイ
English diastolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction (diagnosis), Diastolic Dysfunction, Diastolic dysfunction, Diastolic dysfunction (finding)
Czech Diastolická dysfunkce
Hungarian Diastolés működési zavar
Spanish disfunción diastólica (hallazgo), disfunción diastólica, Disfunción diastólica
Portuguese Disfunção diastólica
Dutch diastolische disfunctie
French Dysfonctionnement diastolique
German diastolische Dysfunktion
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Heart Failure, Diastolic (C1135196)

Definition (MSHCZE) Srdeční selhání způsobené abnormálním myokardiálním ochabnutím během DIASTOLY, což vede ke ztíženému plnění komor. R
Definition (MSH) Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D054144
ICD9 428.30, 428.3
ICD10 I50.30
SnomedCT 418304008
Spanish insuficiencia cardíaca diastólica (trastorno), insuficiencia cardíaca diastólica, Insuficiencia Cardíaca Diastólica, Insuficiencia cardiaca diastólica
English Heart Failure, Diastolic, Diastolic Heart Failures, Diastolic Heart Failure, Heart Failures, Diastolic, Diastolc hrt failure NOS, Unspecified diastolic (congestive) heart failure, Heart Failure, Diastolic [Disease/Finding], diastolic failure heart, diastolic heart failure, heart failure diastolic, Diastolic heart failure, unspecified, Diastolic heart failure, Diastolic heart failure (disorder)
Portuguese Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica, Insuficiência cardíaca diastólica
Finnish Diastolinen sydämen vajaatoiminta
French Défaillance cardiaque diastolique, Insuffisance cardiaque diastolique
German Herzinsuffizienz, Diastolische, DiastolischeHerzinsuffizienz, diastolische Herzinsuffizienz
Italian Scompenso cardiaco diastolico, Insufficienza cardiaca diastolica
Swedish Hjärtsvikt, diastolisk
Dutch diastolisch hartfalen
Czech Diastolické srdeční selhání, diastolické srdeční selhání, srdce - selhání diastolické
Japanese カクチョウキシンフゼン, 心不全-拡張期, 拡張期心不全
Polish Niewydolność serca rozkurczowa, Rozkurczowa niewydolność serca
Hungarian Diasztolés szívelégtelenség
Norwegian Diastolisk hjertesvikt, Hjertesvikt, diastolisk
Croatian Srčano zatajivanje, dijastoličko
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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