Cardiovascular Medicine Book


High Risk Acute Coronary Syndrome Management

Aka: High Risk Acute Coronary Syndrome Management, STEMI, ST Elevation MI, ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Q-Wave MI, Myocardial Infarction Protocol, STEMI Equivalent, New Left Bundle Branch Block
  1. See Also
    1. Acute Coronary Syndrome
    2. Acute Coronary Syndrome Immediate Management
    3. Acute Coronary Syndrome Adjunctive Therapy
    4. Moderate Risk Acute Coronary Syndrome Management
    5. Low Risk Acute Coronary Syndrome Management
    6. Thrombolysis in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
    7. Chest Pain
    8. Cardiac Risk Factors
    9. Angina
    10. Angina Diagnosis
    11. Unstable Angina
    12. TIMI Risk Score
    13. Bosner Chest Pain Decision Rule
    14. Myocardial Infarction Stabilization
    15. Serum Cardiac Markers
    16. Electrocardiogram in Myocardial Infarction
    17. Echocardiogram in Myocardial Infarction
    18. Goldman Criteria for ICU Chest Pain Admission
  2. Indications: Myocardial Infarction
    1. ST Elevation 0.1 mV (1 mm) or more in 2 or more contiguous leads (limb or precordial) or
    2. True posterior Myocardial Infarction (only reason to use reperfusion therapy for ST depression)
      1. See Posterior Myocardial Infarction EKG Changes
  3. Precautions
    1. Aggressively decreasing door to balloon time is associated with significant adverse effects
      1. Higher False Positive Rate on angiography (with higher mortality risk)
      2. Missed alternative diagnoses (e.g. Pulmonary Embolism, Aortic Dissection, Sepsis, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage)
      3. Control Heart Rate in secondary strain patterns (SVT, Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response)
      4. Consider Pericarditis, Hyperkalemia, Bundle Branch Block
      5. False cardiac catheterization lab activations (high resource utilization)
      6. Obtain an adequate initial history and examine the EKG carefully
      7. Fanari (2015) Mayo Clin Proc 90(12): 1614-22 +PMID: 26549506 [PubMed]
      8. Lange (2018) Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 11(8): e004464 +PMID:30354373 [PubMed]
    2. ST Elevation causes are seen in more than just acute Myocardial Infarction
      1. See ST Elevation
      2. Consider Aortic Dissection when Chest Pain is associated with neurologic changes (See Chest Pain Plus)
        1. Avoid delaying PCI in STEMI, but consider CTA when strong dissection indicators are present
        2. STEMI due to Aortic Dissection accounts for only one in 1500 STEMI cases (0.07% of STEMI cases)
    3. Rarely, embolic events cause both ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction AND Cerebrovascular Accident (without Aortic Dissection)
      1. Consult stroke neurology and intervention cardiology
      2. AHA/ASA preferred approach (2022): CVA Thrombolysis followed by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)
  4. Indications: New Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB)
    1. Background
      1. Accounts for ~2% of Acute Coronary Syndrome cases but is the least clear of 2010 ACC Guidelines
        1. Reperfusion therapy for new LBBB as STEMI Equivalent is in question (but still in 2010 ACC guidelines)
        2. See Myocardial Infarction Protocol for details
      2. Left Bundle Branch Block has multiple chronic causes and is likely a marker of coronary disease
      3. However most Chest Pain presentations in patients with LBBB are unlikely to be STEMI Equivalent
        1. Acute LBBB requires a large, diffuse cardiac insult and is associated with a very ill appearing patient
        2. Chest Pain in a hemodynamically stable patient with LBBB is unlikely to be a STEMI Equivalent
    2. Reperfusion Indications in LBBB (Neeland article, not an official guideline in 2012)
      1. Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome in a patient with LBBB on ekg AND
      2. One of the following
        1. Hemodynamic instability OR
        2. Acute Heart Failure OR
        3. Sgarbossa Criteria OR
        4. Bedside Echocardiogram with signs of ACS (e.g. acute wall motion abnormality) OR
        5. Serial cardiac enzyme elevation
    3. Precautions
      1. Consult with local cardiology for unclear cases
    4. References
      1. Mattu and Herbert in Majoewsky (2012) EM:Rap 12(11): 4-5
      2. Chang (2009) Am J Emerg Med 27(8): 916-21 [PubMed]
      3. Jain (2011) Am J Cardiol 107(8): 1111-6 [PubMed]
      4. Neeland (2012) J Am Coll Cardiol 60(2): 96-105 [PubMed]
  5. Management: Reperfusion
    1. Indications: Immediate Reperfusion Strategy
      1. Time from Chest Pain onset <12 hours
      2. Manage as Myocardial Ischemia Protocol if time from Chest Pain onset >12 hours
    2. Start MI Adjunctive Therapy (do not delay reperfusion)
    3. Angioplasty with cardiothoracic back-up
      1. Protocol assumes PCI-capable facility
        1. Best outcomes at facilities performing more than 36 PCI procedures per year
      2. Primary PCI/Angioplasty
        1. Door to balloon goal within 90 minutes of ED arrival
        2. PCI preferred over Thrombolytics if door to ballon time <120 minutes (new extension from 90 minutes as of 2013)
          1. Allows hospitals without PCI capability additional 30 minutes to transfer to PCI facility
          2. Fibrinolytics are preferred if transport time to PCI facility >30 minutes
        3. Other indications for PCI
          1. STEMI and symptoms less than 12 hours
          2. STEMI with CHF or Cardiogenic Shock (Thrombolytics are unlikely to improve CHF)
          3. Post-arrest patient with STEMI or Ventricular Tachycardia
            1. Initiate Hypothermia protocol immediately on ROSC (cool and cath protocol)
      3. Rescue PCI/Angioplasty after failed Thrombolysis
        1. Moderate infarction area and <50% reduction in ST Elevation at 30 minutes
        2. Hemodynamically unstable from ventricular Arrhythmia
        3. Cardiogenic Shock or severe Congestive Heart Failure
      4. Facilitated PCI/Angioplasty
        1. Avoid overall as planned strategy
        2. Reasonable to follow Thrombolytics with PCI in patients without significant improvement
      5. Example medication protocol for inter-hospital transport to catheter lab (consult local experts)
        1. Heparin bolus 70 units/kg up to 5000 units
          1. Consider bolus without maintenance start on arrival at receiving facility if short transport (unless no delays)
          2. Do not use Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) or Fondaparinux (Risk of catheter thrombosis)
          3. Consider Bivalirudin as alternative to Unfractionated Heparin if high risk of bleeding (rarely used now)
        2. Antiplatelet agent
          1. Give Aspirin 325 mg chewed on presentation and
          2. P2Y Receptor Inhibitor
            1. May be delayed until arrival at the catheterization lab (discuss with receiving interventionist)
            2. Clopidogrel (Plavix) 600 mg orally (then continued at 75 mg daily) or
            3. Ticagrelor (Brilinta) 180 mg orally (then continued at 90 mg twice daily)
            4. Avoid administering Prasugrel (Effient) in ED due to bleeding risk
              1. Delay Presugrel until at catheter lab
        3. References
          1. (2012) Circulation 126(7): 875-910 [PubMed]
    4. Thrombolytic therapy (Fibrinolysis)
      1. See Thrombolysis in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
      2. Goal within 30 minutes of ED arrival
        1. Primary indications AND
        2. Not contraindicated AND
        3. Angioplasty (PCI) not available within 90-120 minutes (door to balloon time)
      3. Additional associated immediate measures
        1. P2Y Receptor Inhibitor (Clopidogrel or Ticagrelor) at loading doses above AND
        2. Anticoagulation with Unfractionated Heparin at doses above for at last 48 hours
          1. Enoxaparin and Fondaparinux are alternatives, but not if angiogram planned
      4. Urgent angiography after Fibrinolysis is typically performed as soon as possible (<24 hours)
        1. Typically recommended in all post-Fibrinolytic patients
        2. Cohorts with increased benefit
          1. Acute severe CHF or Cardiogenic Shock
          2. Failed reperfusion with Fibrinolytic (persistent ST Elevation, persistent or recurrent Chest Pain)
    5. Efficacy: Comparing Angioplasty with Fibrinolysis
      1. Similar outcomes and complication rates
        1. Mehta (2002) J Am Coll Cardiol 40:1034-40 [PubMed]
      2. Angioplasty preferred if transport delay <1 hour
        1. Andersen (2003) N Engl J Med 349:733-42 [PubMed]
      3. Specific cohorts with better outcomes with Angioplasty (PCI)
        1. Women
        2. Pulmonary Edema
        3. Systolic Blood Pressure <100 mmHg and Heart Rate >100 bpm
        4. Associated shock-related findings (e.g. Cool and clammy skin)
  6. Management: STEMI with Hypotension (Cardiogenic Shock)
    1. Background
      1. Cardiogenic Shock complicates 6% of acute Myocardial Infarctions
    2. Causes
      1. Right ventricular infarction
      2. Acute Left Ventricular Failure (Left main, left anterior descending or circumflex artery Occlusion)
      3. Aortic Dissection
      4. Massive Pulmonary Embolism
      5. Tension Pneumothorax
      6. Cardiac Tamponade
      7. Ventricular Rupture
      8. Esophageal Rupture
    3. Evaluation
      1. Right sided EKG
      2. Bedside Ultrasound
    4. Management
      1. Emergent reperfusion therapy is critical to stabilization if Myocardial Infarction
        1. However, exclude non-cardiogenic causes above
      2. Medications
        1. Aspirin
        2. Oxygen (if Hypoxia)
        3. Avoid Beta Blockers or Calcium Channel Blockers
        4. Small crystalloid fluid boluses (250 ml) if not in Pulmonary Edema
        5. Norepinephrine (although risk of increased ischemia, Arrhythmia)
    5. References
      1. Adaka in Herbert (2018) EM:Rap 18(2):2-3
  7. Management: Acute Medications
    1. See Post Myocardial Infarction Medications (includes Beta Blockers, ACE Inhibitors, Statins)
    2. Beta Blockers are used selectively only
      1. Consider in hypertensive patients or with tachydysrhythmia such as Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response
      2. Avoid in Sinus Tachycardia which may indicate large Myocardial Infarction with risk of Cardiogenic Shock
      3. Exercise caution with Beta Blockers following the acute phase post-STEMI
      4. See Post Myocardial Infarction Medications for contraindications and indications
  8. Management: Long-term Medications
    1. See Post Myocardial Infarction Medications
    2. Oral antiplatelet medications are used routinely following ST Elevation MI (especially after stenting)
      1. See Antiplatelet Therapy for Vascular Disease
      2. Clopidogrel (Plavix)
      3. Ticagrelor (Brilinta)
      4. Prasugrel (Effient)
  9. Management: Contraindicated Medications
    1. NSAIDS are absolutely contraindicated in acute post-STEMI period
      1. See Post Myocardial Infarction Medications
    2. Morphine (and presumed other Opioids) - possible relative contraindication (based on initial study)
      1. Morphine decreased (35%) and delayed (2 hours) Ticagrelor absorption
      2. Presumed to apply to other Opioids
      3. Kubica (2016) Int J Cardiol 215:201-8 [PubMed]
  10. References
    1. Mattu and Orman in Herbert (2013) EM:Rap 13(4): 7-8
    2. Swaminathan and Mattu in Swadron (2022) EM:Rap 22(10): 4-5
    3. (2000) Circulation 102(suppl I):I172-203 [PubMed]
    4. Antman (2008) Circulation 117(2): 296-329 [PubMed]
    5. O'Gara (2013) Circulation 127(4): e362-425 [PubMed]
    6. Switaj (2017) Am Fam Physician 95(4): 232-40 [PubMed]

Myocardial Infarction (C0027051)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Each year over a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get help immediately. It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone is having them. Those symptoms include

  • Chest discomfort - pressure, squeezing, or pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Discomfort in the upper body - arms, shoulder, neck, back
  • Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lightheadedness, sweating

These symptoms can sometimes be different in women.

What exactly is a heart attack? Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary artery blocks the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. Often this leads to an irregular heartbeat - called an arrhythmia - that causes a severe decrease in the pumping function of the heart. A blockage that is not treated within a few hours causes the affected heart muscle to die.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Definition (NCI_FDA) Gross necrosis of the myocardium, as a result of interruption of the blood supply to the area, as in coronary thrombosis.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by gross necrosis of the myocardium; this is due to an interruption of blood supply to the area.
Definition (NCI) Gross necrosis of the myocardium, as a result of interruption of the blood supply to the area, as in coronary thrombosis.
Definition (CSP) gross necrosis of the myocardium, as a result of interruption of the blood supply to the area.
Definition (MSH) NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D009203
ICD10 I22, I21
SnomedCT 66514008, 266288001, 155304006, 194796000, 233824008, 22298006
LNC LP98884-7, MTHU035551, LA14274-7, LA10558-7
English Myocardial Infarct, Infarctions, Myocardial, Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Infarctions, Infarcts, Myocardial, Myocardial Infarcts, HEART ATTACK, Infarct, Myocardial, Infarction, Myocardial, MI, Myocardial infarction (MI), Attack heart (NOS), Infarct myocardial, cardiac infarction, Myocardial Infarction [Disease/Finding], attacking heart, heart attacks, attack hearts, infarctions myocardial, infarcts myocardial, myocardial infarctions, Infarction;heart, myocardial infarcts, Infarction;myocardial, AMI, attacks coronary, attacks hearts, coronary attack, disorder infarction myocardial, myocardial necrosis, syndrome myocardial infarction, heart attack, mies, Heart Attack, Attack - heart, Cardiac infarct, myocardial infarction, myocardial infarction (diagnosis), MI, MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, (MI), INFARCTION (MI), MYOCARDIAL, -- Heart Attack, Cardiovascular Stroke, Cardiovascular Strokes, Stroke, Cardiovascular, Strokes, Cardiovascular, Myocardial infarct, Myocardial infarction, Heart attack, MI - Myocardial infarction, Cardiac infarction, Infarction of heart, Myocardial infarction (disorder), cardiac; infarction, infarction; myocardial, Cardiac infarction, NOS, Heart attack, NOS, Infarction of heart, NOS, Myocardial infarction, NOS, Heart Attacks, Infarctions (Myocardial), Myocardial infarction NOS, Attack coronary, heart infarction
German MYOKARDINFARKT, Koronarattacke, Herzanfall, MI, Herzanfall (NNB), HERZANFALL, Herzinfarkt, Myokardinfarkt
Dutch hartaanval, hartinfarct, hartaanval (NAO), MI, cardiaal; infarct, infarct; myocard, myocardinfarct, Hartinfarct, Infarct, myocard-, Myocardinfarct
French Crise coronaire, IM, Crise cardiaque SAI, Crise cardiaque, CRISE CARDIAQUE, INFARCTUS DU MYOCARDE, IDM (Infarctus Du Myocarde), Infarctus du myocarde, Infarctus myocardique
Italian MI, Attacco cardiaco, Attacco coronarico, Attacco cardiaco (NAS), Infarto del miocardio, Infarto miocardico
Portuguese Ataque coronário, Ataque do coração, Ataque cardíaco NE, EM, ATAQUE CARDIACO, ENFARTO DO MIOCARDIO, Enfarte do miocárdio, Infarto do Miocárdio
Spanish IM, Crisis coronaria, Ataque al corazón, Ataque al corazón (NEOM), Infarto miocárdico, ATAQUE CARDIACO, INFARTO DE MIOCARDIO, Infarto al Miocardio, ataque al corazón, infarto cardíaco, infarto de corazón, infarto de miocardio (trastorno), infarto de miocardio, Infarto de miocardio, Infarto del Miocardio
Japanese 心臓発作(NOS), 冠発作, 心臓発作, カンホッサ, シンゾウホッサNOS, シンゾウホッサ, シンキンコウソク, 冠状動脈梗塞, 心筋梗塞, 冠動脈梗塞, 心筋梗塞症
Swedish Hjärtinfarkt
Czech infarkt myokardu, Srdeční záchvat, Srdeční záchvat (NOS), IM, Koronární záchvat, Infarkt myokardu
Finnish Sydäninfarkti
Polish Świeży zawał serca, Zawał serca świeży, Zawał mięśnia sercowego, Zawał serca
Hungarian Coronaria roham, Szívroham (k.m.n.), Szívroham, Infarctus myocardii, Szívizom infarctus, MI
Norwegian Hjerteinfarkt, Hjerteattakk, Myokardinfarkt
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Q wave MI (C0861151)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
Dutch Q-golf MI
French IM à onde Q
German MI mit Q-Welle
Italian Infarto miocardico con onda Q
Portuguese EM com onda Q
Spanish IM con onda Q
Japanese Q波心筋梗塞, Qハシンキンコウソク
Czech Q-IM
English Q wave MI, mi q wave, q wave mi
Hungarian Q hullám MI
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Acute Coronary Syndrome (C0948089)

Definition (MSH) An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by signs and symptoms related to acute ischemia of the myocardium secondary to coronary artery disease. The clinical presentation covers a spectrum of heart diseases from unstable angina to myocardial infarction.
Definition (NCI) Signs and symptoms related to acute ischemia of the myocardium secondary to coronary artery disease. The clinical presentation covers a spectrum of heart diseases from unstable angina to myocardial infarction.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D054058
SnomedCT 393587009, 394659003
Japanese 急性冠動脈症候群, キュウセイカンドウミャクショウコウグン
English Coronary Syndromes, Acute, Syndromes, Acute Coronary, Acute Coronary Syndromes, Acute Coronary Syndrome, Syndrome, Acute Coronary, Coronary Syndrome, Acute, Acute Coronary Syndrome [Disease/Finding], acute coronary syndromes, syndrome acute coronary, acute coronary syndrome (diagnosis), acute coronary syndrome, Acute coronary syndrome, Acute coronary syndrome (disorder), ACS - Acute coronary syndrome
Portuguese Síndrome Coronariana Aguda, Síndrome coronário agudo
Spanish Síndrome Coronario Agudo, síndrome coronario agudo (trastorno), síndrome coronario agudo, Síndrome coronario agudo
Finnish Akuutti sepelvaltimo-oireyhtymä
German Akutes Koronarsyndrom, akutes Koronarsyndrom
Italian Sindrome coronarica acuta
Swedish Akut koronarsyndrom
Czech Akutní koronární syndrom, akutní koronární syndrom
French Syndrome coronaire aigu, SCA (Syndrome Coronarien Aigu), Syndrome coronarien aigu
Polish Zespół wieńcowy ostry
Hungarian Acut coronaria syndroma
Norwegian Akutt koronarsyndrom, Koronarsyndrom, akutt, AKS
Dutch acuut coronairsyndroom
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (C1536220)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
Dutch STEMI, ST-segment stijging myocardinfarct
French Infarctus du myocarde à surélévation du segment QT, Infarctus du myocarde à surélévation du segment ST (STEMI)
German Myokardinfarkt mit ST-Streckenhebung, STEMI
Italian Infarto miocardico con sopraslivellamento del segmento ST, Infarto miocardico con sopraslivellamento ST
Portuguese Enfarte do miocárdio da elevação do segmento ST, STEMI (enfarte do miocárdio da elevação do segmento ST)
Spanish Infarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, IMEST
Japanese ST上昇型心筋梗塞, ST部分上昇型心筋梗塞, STブブンジョウショウガタシンキンコウソク, STジョウショウガタシンキンコウソク
Czech Infarkt myokardu po elevaci segmentu ST, STEMI
Hungarian ST segmens emelkedéssel járó szívizom infarctus, STEMI
English ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, STEMI
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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