II. Indications

  1. Detect serum Antigen or Antibody

III. Definitions

  1. Precipitan
    1. Antibody (IgG or IgM) that precipitates in the presence of Antigen
  2. Immunoelectrophoresis
    1. Protein electrophoresis followed by precipitation by double immunodiffusion

IV. Mechanism

  1. Electrophoresis may be used in advance of precipitation (Immunoelectrophoresis)
    1. See Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPEP)
    2. Separates proteins via gel electrophoresis
    3. Proteins are then selectively used in precipitation testing
  2. Precipitates specific Antigen or Antibody (precipitan) with its corresponding Antibody or Antigen
  3. Performed in test tube (e.g. cellulose acetate) or on agarose or agar diffusion plate
    1. Antibody-Antigen Precipitant becomes measurable within medium
    2. Agar Gel Immunodiffusion
      1. Double immunodiffusion (e.g. Ouchterlony Qualitative Immunodiffusion)
        1. Qualitative or quantitative measurement of Antigen-Antibody precipitant
      2. Radial Immunodiffusion (e.g. Mancini method)
        1. Antigen-Antibody complex forms a precipitin ring
        2. Antigen concentration quantified by measuring precipitation ring diameter
      3. Electroimmunodiffusion
    3. Test Tube Precipitant in Solution (Quantified by spectrophotometer techniques)
      1. Immunoturbidimetry (absorption of light by precipitant is measured)
      2. Immunonephelometry (reflection of light by precipitant is measured)

V. Disadvantages

  1. Lower Test Sensitivity compared with Agglutination Tests

VI. Resources

  1. Immunoprecipitation (Wikipedia)
    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunoprecipitation

VII. References

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Related Studies

Ontology: Immunodiffusion measurement (C0017231)

Definition (MSH) Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Definition (CSP) technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
MSH D005779
SnomedCT 32623009
CPT 1011937
English Diffusion Test, Gel, Diffusion Tests, Gel, Gel Diffusion Test, Gel Diffusion Tests, Immunodiffusion, Immunodiffusions, Test, Gel Diffusion, Tests, Gel Diffusion, Immunodiffusion measurement, immunodiffusion, ID measurement, Immunodiffusion measurement (procedure), Immunodiffusion measurement, NOS
Swedish Immundiffusion
Czech gelové difuzní testy, imunodifuze
Finnish Immunodiffuusio
French Immunodiffusion, Tests d'immunodiffusion en gélose, Tests d'immuno-diffusion en gélose, Immuno-diffusion, Tests d'immunodiffusion sur gélose, Tests d'immuno-diffusion sur gélose
German Gel-Diffusions-Tests, Immundiffusion
Russian GEL', DIFFUZIONNYE TESTY, IMMUNODIFFUZIIA, ГЕЛЬ, ДИФФУЗИОННЫЕ ТЕСТЫ, ИММУНОДИФФУЗИЯ
Italian Test di immunodiffusione su gel, Immunodiffusione
Croatian Not Translated[Immunodiffusion]
Polish Immunodyfuzja, Próby dyfuzyjne w żelu
Japanese 免疫拡散法, ゲル内拡散試験, ゲル内拡散テスト, 免疫拡散
Norwegian Immundiffusjon, Geldiffusjonstester
Spanish medición de ID, medición de inmunodifusión (procedimiento), medición de inmunodifusión, Inmunodifusión, Tests de Difusión en Gel
Dutch Geldiffusietest, Immunodiffusie
Portuguese Imunodifusão, Testes de Difusão em Gel

Ontology: immunoelectrophoresis (C0020997)

Definition (HL7V3.0) <p>Electrophoresis, Immuno</p>
Definition (MSH) A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Definition (CSP) technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion: in this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis, then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies; a distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
MSH D007122
SnomedCT 165993000, 143378004, 143381009, 25884002, 69599001
CPT 1011933
HL7 0067
LNC LP6335-6
English Immunoelectrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis NOS, iep, immunoelectrophoresis (IEP), Immunoelectrophoresis NOS (procedure), IEP, Immunoelectrophoresis (procedure), Immunoelectrophoresis, NOS, immunoelectrophoresis
Japanese 免疫電気泳動, メンエキデンキエイドウ
Swedish Immunelektrofores
Czech imunoelektroforéza, Imunoelektroforéza
Finnish Immunoelektroforeesi
Russian IMMUNOELEKTROFOREZ, ИММУНОЭЛЕКТРОФОРЕЗ
French Immuno-électrophorèse, Immunoélectrophorèse
Croatian IMUNOELEKTROFOREZA
Polish Immunoelektroforeza
Hungarian Immunelektroforézis
Norwegian Immunelektroforese
Spanish inmunoelectroforesis, SAI, inmunoelectroforesis, SAI (procedimiento), Immunoelectrophoresis NOS, IEF, SAI, inmunoelectroforesis (procedimiento), inmunoelectroforesis, Inmunoelectroforesis
Portuguese Imunoelectroforese, Imunoeletroforese
Dutch immuno-elektroforese, Elektroforese, immuno-, Immuno-elektroforese
German Immunelektrophorese
Italian Immunoelettroforesi

Ontology: Immunoprecipitation (C0021069)

Definition (HL7V3.0) <p>Precipitation, Immune precipitation</p>
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Antigen aggregation with antibody, in the right ratios, to cause precipitation. (NCI)
Definition (NCI) Antigen aggregation with antibody, in the right ratios, to cause precipitation.
Definition (MSH) The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Definition (CSP) serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible precipitation occurs when a soluble antigen reacts with its antibody.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
MSH D047468
HL7 0140
Swedish Immunprecipitation
Czech imunoprecipitace
Finnish Immuunisaostus
Russian IMMUNOPRETSIPITATSIIA, ИММУНОПРЕЦИПИТАЦИЯ
Japanese 免疫沈降法, 免疫沈降反応, 免疫沈降
Croatian Not Translated[Immunoprecipitation]
English immunoprecipitation, IMMUNOPRECIPITATION, Immune Precipitations, Immune Precipitation, Precipitation, Immune, Precipitations, Immune, IP, Immunoprecipitation, Immune precipitation
Polish Immunoprecypitacja
Norwegian Immunopresipitering, Immunpresipitasjon, Immunpresipitering
French Immuno-précipitation, Immunoprécipitation
German Immunpräzipitation, Immunopräzipitation
Italian Immunoprecipitazione
Dutch Immunoprecipitatie, Precipitatie, immuno-
Portuguese Imunoprecipitação
Spanish Inmunoprecipitación

Ontology: Immunologic Precipitation (C0032932)

Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
SnomedCT 21738005
English Precipitation, function, Immunologic Precipitation, precipitation, Precipitation, Precipitation, function (observable entity), Precipitation (function)
Spanish precipitación (entidad observable), precipitación (función), precipitación

Ontology: Immunodiffusion, qualitative by Ouchterlony technique (C0201715)

Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 23828004
English Immunodiffusion, qualitative by Ouchterlony technique, Immunodiffusion, qualitative by Ouchterlony technique (procedure)
Spanish inmunodifusión cualitativa por técnica de Ouchterlony (procedimiento), inmunodifusión cualitativa por técnica de Ouchterlony

Ontology: Radial immunodiffusion measurement (C0201717)

Definition (HL7V3.0) <p>Radial Immunodiffusion</p>
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 20191000
HL7 0252
English Radial immunodiffusion measurement, RID measurement, Radial immunodiffusion measurement (procedure), Radial immunodiffusion (RID)
Spanish medición de RID, medición de inmunodifusión radial (procedimiento), medición de inmunodifusión radial

Ontology: Immunoturbidimetry (C3829558)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) A method that measures the absorbance of light from a sample which is used for quantifying an amount of analyte based on the level of turbidity produced by the formation and precipitation of an immune complex containing the analyte. (NCI)
Definition (NCI) A method that measures the absorbance of light from a sample which is used for quantifying an amount of analyte based on the level of turbidity produced by the formation and precipitation of an immune complex containing the analyte.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
English IMMUNOTURBIDIMETRY, Immunoturbidimetry