II. Definitions

  1. Lymph
    1. Clear to yellow translucent fluid containing primarily Lymphocytes
    2. Flows from peripheral tissues via lymphatic vessels and Lymph Nodes
    3. Lymph re-enters venous system via the Thoracic Duct at the left subclavian
  2. Chyle
    1. Opaque, milky fluid containing both lymph and emulsified fats
    2. Absorbed at the lacteals within the Small Intestines
    3. Flows from the intestinal tract into the Lymphatic System
  3. Lymphoid Tissue
    1. Tissue within the Lymphatic System in which Lymphocytes form, mature and multiply
    2. Lymphoid Tissue is interconnected via lymphatic vessels
  4. Lymph Node
    1. Rounded, bean-shaped collection of lymphatic tissue contained within a connective tissue capsule
    2. The adult human body contains roughly 500 Lymph Nodes, normally <2 cm each
  5. Thoracic Duct
    1. Largest of the lymphatic vessels, draining directly into the left subclavian vein
    2. Central lymphatic drain that collects flow from the tree network of Lymphatics throughout the body

IV. Physiology: Lymph Node

  1. Lymph Nodes store Lymphocytes within Nodules (lobules)
    1. Lymph Node Outer Cortex (Germinal Tissue, Follicle)
      1. Contains Inactive B Cells ready to respond to Antigens
    2. Lymph Node Inner Paracortex
      1. Contains T Helper Cells and Dendritic Cells
  2. Lymph Nodes contain a mesh framework that filters lymph fluid of Antigens
    1. B Lymphocytes within Lymph Node germinal centers are stimulated to divide by specific Antigens
    2. Specifically responding B Lymphocytes divide into Antibody producing plasma cells and memory cells
  3. Lymph Nodes are supplied by Lymphatics and a vascular tree
    1. Afferent Lymphatics pass through the Lymph Node capsule and into each Nodule
    2. Lymph flows from the outer cortex (B Cells) to the inner cortex (T Helper Cells) to the Medullary region
    3. Lymph Node central Medullary region collects all flow from the lymph Nodules
      1. Efferent Lymphatics exit the Medullary region and flow to the next Lymph Node
      2. Medullary region also contains arteries and veins

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Related Studies

Ontology: Chyle (C0008730)

Definition (FMA) Lymph mixed with fats absorbed by the small intestine.
Definition (UWDA) Lymph mixed with fats absorbed by the small intestine.
Definition (MSHCZE) Lymfa, která je mléčně zbarvená vlivem přítomnosti tuků. Označuje se tak zejm. lymfa přitékající ze střev (střevní lymfa) a lymfa v hrudním mízovodu (ductus thoracicus), do kterého se střevní lymfa vlévá. Mléčné zbarvení chylu je dáno přítomností chylomikronů, zvýrazní se (nebo se objeví) po jídle, a následně dojde i v krvi (kam se chylus vlévá) k zakalení krevní plasmy (postprandiální lipemie). (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A milky-white fluid that forms in the small intestine during digestion. It is made of lymph fluid and fats. Special lymph vessels carry chyle from the intestines to the blood.
Definition (MSH) An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.
Concepts Body Substance (T031)
MSH D002913
SnomedCT 18368008
English Chyle, Chyles, chyles, chyle, Chyle (substance)
Swedish Tarmlymfa
Czech chylus
Finnish Maitiaisneste
Latvian Hils
Polish Mlecz
Norwegian Kylus, Tarmlymfe
Spanish quilo (sustancia), quilo, Quilo
French Chyle
German Chylus
Italian Chilo
Dutch Chijl, Darmlymfe, Melksap
Portuguese Quilo

Ontology: lymph nodes (C0024204)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) A bean-shaped organ surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. It is part of the lymphatic system and is found through out the body. It is composed predominantly of lymphocytes and its main function is immune protection. (NCI)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. Lymph nodes filter lymph (lymphatic fluid), and they store lymphocytes (white blood cells). They are located along lymphatic vessels.
Definition (NCI) A bean-shaped organ surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. It is part of the lymphatic system and is found throughout the body. It is composed predominantly of lymphocytes and its main function is immune protection.
Definition (MSH) They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Definition (CSP) any of the accumulations of lymphoid tissue organized as definite lymphoid organs, varying from 1 to 25 mm in diameter situated along the course of lymphatic vessels and consisting of an outer cortical and an inner medullary part; the main source of lymphocytes of the peripheral blood and, as part of the reticuloendothelial system, serves as a defense mechanism by removing noxious agents, such as bacteria and toxins.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D008198
ICD10 U000976
SnomedCT 59441001
LNC LP30457-3, MTHU015050
English Lymph Nodes, Node, Lymph, Nodes, Lymph, Lymph Gland, lymph nodes, Structure of lymph node, Structure of lymph node (body structure), Lymph node structure (body structure), Lymph node structure, LN - Lymph node, Nodus lymphaticus, Nodus lymphoideus, Lymphonodus, glands lymph, gland lymph, glands lymphatic, lymphatic gland, lymphs node, node lymph, lymphs nodes, lymph node, nodes lymph, Lymph nodes, lymph gland, LYMPH NODE, Lymphatic Gland, Lymph node, Lymph gland, Lymphatic gland, Lymph node, NOS, Lymph gland, NOS, Lymphatic gland, NOS, Lymph Node, Reticuloendothelial System, Lymph Node
French Lymphonoeuds, Noeud lymphatique, Ganglion lymphatique, Ganglions lymphatiques, Noeuds lymphatiques, Lymphonoeud
Swedish Lymfkörtlar
Czech lymfatické uzliny
Finnish Imusolmukkeet
Spanish Ganglios Linfáticos, Nódulos Linfáticos, estructura de ganglio linfático (estructura corporal), estructura de ganglio linfático, ganglio linfático, nódulo linfático
Latvian Limfmezgli
Polish Węzły limfatyczne, Węzły chłonne
Norwegian Lymfeknuter, Nodi lymphatici, Lymphonodi
Portuguese Gânglios Linfáticos, Nódulos Linfáticos, Linfonodos
German Lymphknoten
Italian Linfonodi
Dutch Lymfeknoop, Lymfeknopen

Ontology: Lymphatic Diseases (C0024228)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs. It is made up of

  • Lymph - a fluid that contains white blood cells that defend against germs
  • Lymph vessels - vessels that carry lymph throughout your body. They are different from blood vessels.
  • Lymph nodes - glands found throughout the lymph vessels. Along with your spleen, these nodes are where white blood cells fight infection.

Your bone marrow and thymus produce the cells in lymph. They are part of the system, too.

The lymphatic system clears away infection and keeps your body fluids in balance. If it's not working properly, fluid builds in your tissues and causes swelling, called lymphedema. Other lymphatic system problems can include infections, blockage, and cancer.

Definition (CSP) condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the lymph or lymph vessels.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D008206
SnomedCT 111590001, 155452000, 266326002, 3305006, 234087005, 362971004
English Diseases, Lymphatic, Lymphatic Disease, Lymphatic Diseases, lymphatic disorder, Disease, Lymphatic, Disord of lymph node+lymphat, LYMPHATIC DIS, Disease of lymphoid system, Lymphangiopathy NOS, Lymphatic Diseases [Disease/Finding], disorder of lymphatic system, disorders lymphatic system, Diseases of lymph node or lymph vessels, lymphatic disease, lymphatic diseases, lymphatic disorders, lymphatic system disorder, Lymphangiopathies, Lymphatic disorder, Lymphatic disease, Lymphatics--Diseases, disorder of lymphatic system (diagnosis), Lymphangiopathy, Disorders of lymph node and lymphatics, Disorder of lymphatic system (disorder), Disorder of lymphatic system, Disorders of lymph node and lymphatics (disorder), disease (or disorder); lymphatic, Disorder of lymphatics, NOS, Lymphangiopathy, NOS, Disease of lymphoid system (disorder), Disorder of lymphatics, Disorder of lymphoid system (disorder), Disorder of lymphoid system, Lymphatic Disorders
Italian Linfangiopatia, Linfangiopatie, Patologia linfatica, Linfangiopatia NAS, Malattie linfatiche
Dutch lymfangiopathie NAO, aandoening; lymfatisch, lymfangiopathie, lymfe-angiopathieën, lymfeaandoening, Aandoening, lymfe-, Aandoeningen, lymfe-, Lymfadenopathie, Lymfeaandoening, Lymfeaandoeningen
French Lymphangiopathie SAI, Lymphangiopathies, Lymphangiopathie, Trouble lymphatique, Maladies lymphatiques, Lymphopathies, Maladies du système lymphatique
German Lymphangiopathie NNB, Lymphangiopathien, Lymphangiopathie, Lympherkrankungen, Lymphatische Krankheiten
Portuguese Linfangiopatia NE, Estado Linfático, Linfagiopatias, Afecção linfática, Linfangiopatia, Doenças Linfáticas
Spanish Linfangiopatía NEOM, enfermedad del sistema linfático (trastorno), linfangiopatía, enfermedad de los tejidos linfáticos (trastorno), enfermedad de los tejidos linfáticos, trastorno del sistema linfático (trastorno), trastorno del sistema linfático, trastornos de los ganglios linfáticos (trastorno), trastornos de los ganglios linfáticos, Linfangiopatías, Linfangiopatía, Trastorno linfático, trastorno del sistema linfoide (trastorno), trastorno del sistema linfoide, enfermedad del sistema linfático, Enfermedades Linfáticas
Japanese リンパ管障害, リンパ管障害NOS, リンパ管症, リンパ系障害, リンパケイショウガイ, リンパカンショウガイNOS, リンパカンショウ, リンパカンショウガイ
Swedish Lymfatiska sjukdomar
Czech lymfatické nemoci, Lymfangiopatie, Lymfangiopatie NOS, Onemocnění lymfatických cév, Lymfatická porucha
Finnish Imukudosjärjestelmän sairaudet
Polish Choroby układu limfatycznego, Siatkowico-śródbłonkowica, Choroby układu chłonnego
Hungarian lymphatikus betegség, Lymphangiopathiak, Lymphangiopathia k.m.n., Lymphangiopathia
Norwegian Lymfatiske sykdommer, Lymfesykdommer

Ontology: Lymphatic System (C0024235)

Definition (MSHCZE) Systém sloužící k odvádění lymfy z tkání. Zahrnuje lymfatické cévy a uzliny. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood cells that fight infections and other diseases. This system includes the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels (a network of thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood cells). Lymphatic vessels branch, like blood vessels, into all the tissues of the body.
Definition (NCI) The anatomic system that includes the lymph nodes, lymphoid tissues in various organs (spleen, thymus, tonsils, gastrointestinal tract), and lymphatic vessels. It is part of the immune system that offers protection against infections.
Definition (MSH) A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
Definition (CSP) system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and lymph.
Concepts Body System (T022)
MSH D008208
SnomedCT 89890002
English Lymphatic Systems, Lymphoreticular system, Lymphatic system structure (body structure), Structure of lymphatic system (body structure), Structure of lymphatic system, Lymphatic system structure, Lymphatic tree system, lymphatic system, lymphatic system structure, lymphatic systems, lymphatics system, lymphoreticular system, Lymphatic system, Lymphatic system, NOS, Lymphatic System, Lymphatics, Reticuloendothelial System, Lymphatic System
Swedish Lymfatiska systemet
Czech lymfatický systém, systema lymphaticum
Finnish Imukudosjärjestelmä
Latvian Limfātiskā sistēma
Polish Układ limfatyczny, Układ chłonny
Norwegian Lymfatisk system, Lymfesystem
Spanish Sistema Linfoide, estructura del sistema linfático (estructura corporal), estructura del sistema linfático, sistema linfático, Sistema Linfático
Portuguese Sistema Linfoide, Sistema Linfático
French Système lymphatique
German Lymphatisches System
Italian Sistema linfatico
Dutch Lymfatisch systeem, Systeem, lymfatisch

Ontology: Lymphoid Tissue (C0024296)

Definition (MSHCZE) Specializované tkáně, které jsou součástí lymfatického systému. V těle se mohou vyskytovat na určitých místech, kde se tvoří, zrají a množí LYMFOCYTY. Lymfoidní tkáně jsou propojeny sítí LYMFATICKÝCH CÉV. R
Definition (NCI) Tissue characterized by the presence of large numbers of lymphocytes in different stages of transformation. Connective tissue cells including fibroblasts and macrophages may be present. Lymphoid tissue is framed by a network of reticular fibers and may be diffuse, or densely aggregated.
Definition (MSH) Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Definition (CSP) specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system, providing fixed locations within the body where a variety of lymphocytes can form, mature, and multiply.
Concepts Tissue (T024)
MSH D008221
SnomedCT 6969002, 181768009
English Lymphoid Tissue, Lymphoid Tissues, Tissue, Lymphoid, Tissues, Lymphoid, lymphatic tissue, lymphatic tissues, lymphoid tissues, lymphatic organs, lymphoid tissue, tissue lymphoid, Lymphatic Tissues, Tissue, Lymphatic, Tissues, Lymphatic, Lymphatic Tissue, Lymphocytic tissue, Lymphoid tissue, Lymphatic tissue, Lymphatic tissue (body structure), Lymphocytic tissue structure (body structure), Lymphocytic tissue structure
French Tissu lymphatique, Tissu lymphoïde
Swedish Lymfvävnad
Czech lymfoidní tkáň
Finnish Imukudos
Japanese リンパ系組織, リンパ様組織, リンパ組織
Italian Tessuto linfatico, Tessuto linfoide
Latvian Limfoīdie audi
Polish Tkanka limfoidalna
Norwegian Lymfatisk vev
Portuguese Tecido Linfoide, Tecido Linfático
Spanish Tejido Linfático, Tejido Linfoideo, estructura del tejido linfático (estructura corporal), estructura del tejido linfático, tejido linfático (estructura corporal), tejido linfático, Tejido Linfoide
German Lymphatisches Gewebe
Dutch Lymfoïd weefsel, Weefsel, lymfoïd

Ontology: Thoracic Duct (C0039979)

Definition (FMA) Lymphatic trunk that connects all tributaries of the thoracic duct tree to the trunk of the left brachiocephalic vein. Examples: There is only one thoracic duct tree.
Definition (UWDA) Lymphatic tree (organ) connected to the confluence of the left subclavian and internal jugular veins. Examples: There is only one thoracic duct tree.
Definition (MSH) The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D013897
SnomedCT 1732005
English Duct, Thoracic, Ducts, Thoracic, Thoracic Ducts, Trunk of thoracic duct tree, Ductus thoracicus, ductus thoracicus, duct thoracic, thoracic duct, Thoracic duct tree, Thoracic duct, TD - Thoracic duct, Thoracic duct structure (body structure), Thoracic duct structure, Thoracic Duct
French Canal thoracique, Conduit lymphatique thoracique, Conduit thoracique, Canal lymphatique thoracique
Swedish Stora bröstgången
Czech ductus thoracicus
Finnish Rintatiehyt
Polish Zbiornik mleczu, Przewód piersiowy
Norwegian Ductus thoracicus, Den store lymfegangen, store lymfegangen
Spanish conducto torácico, estructura del conducto torácico (estructura corporal), estructura del conducto torácico, Conducto Torácico
German Ductus thoracicus
Italian Dotto toracico
Dutch Ductus thoracicus
Portuguese Ducto Torácico

Ontology: lymphatic circulation (C0596870)

Definition (CSP) lymphatic vessels and the movement of lymph within these vessels, as well as the circuitous movement of interstitial fluid from body tissues to the circulatory system.
Concepts Organ or Tissue Function (T042)
English lymphatic circulation