II. Methods: Boiling

  1. Water sterilized at onset of boiling

III. Methods: Pasteurization

  1. Cleans, but does not sterilize water
    1. Six log reduction in organisms
  2. Protocols
    1. Heat at 185 degrees F for 20 seconds
    2. Heat at 145 degrees F for 30 minutes

IV. Methods: Filtration

  1. Pore size dependent
  2. Agent dependent
    1. Bacteria <.2 micron
    2. Cryptosporidium < 1 micron
    3. Virus particles (as small as .0004 micron)
  3. Avoid sediment
    1. Clogs filters, harbors organisms
    2. Technique 1 to clear sediment
      1. Allow water to sit so sediment can settle
      2. Pull water off top into filter
    3. Technique 2 to clear sediment
      1. Run water through coffee filter first

V. Methods: Halogenation with Chlorine or Iodine

  1. Chlorine contact time (assumes standard pH and Temp)
    1. Escherichia coli: 0.016 ppm Minute
    2. Enteric virus: 4 ppm Minute
    3. Giardia lamblia: 150 ppm Minute
    4. Cryptosporidium: 9600 ppm Minute
  2. Tincture of Iodine (5-10 drops added to quart water)
    1. Indicated for high organic solute load in water
    2. Not effective against Cryptosporidium
    3. Avoid in thryoid disease

VI. References

  1. Wayman (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(6): 3-10

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Related Studies

Ontology: Halogenation (C0259913)

Definition (CSP) incorporation or addition of a halogen in a compound.
Definition (MSH) Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Concepts Phenomenon or Process (T067)
MSH D054879
English halogenation, Halogenation
Portuguese Halogenação, Fluoração da Água
Spanish Halogenación, Yoduración
Finnish Halogenaatio
French Halogénation
German Halogenierung
Italian Alogenazione
Japanese ハロゲン化, 臭素化
Swedish Halogenation
Czech halogenace
Polish Brominacja, Fluorinacja, Chlorinacja, Halogenacja, Jodacja, Jodynacja, Chlorowcowanie