II. Causes: Smooth Tumors - Reactive or Inflammatory

  1. Pyogenic Granuloma
    1. Single, fast growing, friable, Red Papules (most commonly on the lips or Gingival mucosa)
    2. May be pedunculated
  2. Irritation Fibroma
    1. Single smooth dome shaped Papule, typically along the bite line
    2. Caused by chronic irritation of the Oral Mucosa
  3. Lingual Thyroid
    1. Round, smooth red mass, non-tender at posterior Tongue base
    2. Thyroid tissue that arises from thyroglossal duct remnant

III. Causes: Smooth Tumors - Salivary Gland

  1. Mucocele
    1. Mucous filled polyps that form on any of the mucosal surfaces
    2. Typically form on inner lower lip and inner cheek, but also may involve ventral Tongue
  2. Ranula
    1. Translucent mass alongside the frenulum
    2. Submaxillary gland or Sublingual Gland cyst due to duct obstruction
    3. Named for its appearance as a frog belly (Ranula = "little frog")
  3. Neoplasm
    1. Pleomorphic adenoma
    2. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma
    3. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

IV. Causes: Smooth Tumors - Mesenchymal

  1. Neurofibroma
  2. Schwannoma
  3. Lymphoma

V. Causes: Rough Tumors

  1. Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    1. Thick white or red patches, ulcerations or Papules that are typically on the lateral Tongue
  2. Oral Squamous Papilloma (HPV 6, 11)
    1. Single tumors most commonly on the ventral Tongue
    2. Lesions are typically smaller, and not clustered (unlike Condyloma acuminatum)
  3. Condyloma acuminatum (HPV 2, 6, 11, 16 or 18)
    1. Single or multiple dome shaped lesions
    2. Localized to the dorsal Tongue and lingual frenulum

VI. References

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Ontology: Tongue Neoplasms (C0040411)

Definition (NCI) A benign or malignant neoplasm involving the tongue.
Definition (MSH) Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
Definition (CSP) new abnormal tongue tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
Concepts Neoplastic Process (T191)
MSH D014062
SnomedCT 126778001
English Neoplasm, Tongue, Neoplasms, Tongue, Tongue Neoplasms, tongue neoplasm, TONGUE NEOPL, NEOPL TONGUE, neoplasm of tongue, neoplasm of tongue (diagnosis), Tongue Neoplasms [Disease/Finding], tongue neoplasms, neoplasm tongue, neoplasms tongue, of tongue tumor, tongue tumor, tongue tumors, tumor tongue, Tongue neoplasm NOS, Tongue neoplasm, Tumor of tongue, Tumour of tongue, Neoplasm of tongue (disorder), Neoplasm of tongue, Tongue Neoplasm, Neoplasm of Tongue, Neoplasm of the Tongue, Tongue Tumor, Tumor of Tongue, Tumor of the Tongue
Italian Tumore della lingua, Tumore della lingua NAS, Neoplasie della lingua
Dutch tongneoplasma NAO, tongneoplasma, Gezwel, tong-, Gezwellen, tong-, Tonggezwel, Tonggezwellen
French Tumeur de la langue SAI, Tumeur de la langue, Tumeurs de la langue, Tumeurs linguales
German Neubildungen der Zunge NNB, Neubildungen der Zunge, Zungentumoren
Portuguese Neoplasia da língua NE, Neoplasia da língua, Neoplasias da Língua
Spanish Neoplasia de la lengua NEOM, neoplasia de la lengua (trastorno), neoplasia de la lengua, tumor de la lengua, Neoplasia de la lengua, Neoplasias de la Lengua
Japanese 舌新生物NOS, シタシンセイブツ, ゼツシンセイブツ, ゼツシンセイブツNOS, 舌新生物, 舌腫瘍
Swedish Tungtumörer
Finnish Kielen kasvaimet
Russian IAZYKA RAK, IAZYKA NOVOOBRAZOVANIIA, RAK IAZYKA, РАК ЯЗЫКА, ЯЗЫКА НОВООБРАЗОВАНИЯ, ЯЗЫКА РАК
Czech Novotvar jazyka, Novotvar jazyka NOS, jazyk - nádory, nádory jazyka
Croatian JEZIK, TUMORI
Polish Nowotwory języka
Hungarian Nyelv neoplasia k.m.n., Nyelv neoplasia
Norwegian Tungesvulster, Tungetumorer, Tungeneoplasmer

Ontology: Mass of tongue (C0241436)

Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 206958005, 441975003
English [D]Tongue mass (context-dependent category), [D]Tongue mass, Tongue mass, tongue lesion mass (___ cm), ENT surgical result tongue mass (treatment), ENT surgical result tongue mass, tongue mass, Mass of tongue (finding), Mass of tongue, mass of tongue (physical finding), mass of tongue, mass tongue, [D]Tongue mass (situation)
Spanish [D]masa en la lengua (categoría dependiente del contexto), masa de lengua, masa de lengua (hallazgo), [D]masa lingual, [D]masa en la lengua, [D]masa en la lengua (situación)

Ontology: Tongue nodules (C0241438)

Concepts Finding (T033)
English Tongue nodule, Tongue nodules, nodule of tongue, nodule of tongue (physical finding), tongue nodule, nodules tongue

Ontology: Lesion of tongue (C0576971)

Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 300246005
English lesion of tongue, lesion of tongue (physical finding), lesion tongue, tongue lesion, tongue lesions, lesions tongue, Lesion of tongue, Lesion of tongue (finding)
Spanish lesión de la lengua (hallazgo), lesión de la lengua

Ontology: Tongue papule (C0877101)

Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
Dutch tongpapel
French Papule linguale
German Zungenpapel
Italian Papula della lingua
Portuguese Pápula lingual
Spanish Pápula lingual
Japanese 舌丘疹, シタキュウシン, ゼツキュウシン
Czech Vyrážka jazyka
English Tongue papule
Hungarian Nyelv papula