II. Causes: Bacterial (Persists slightly longer than viral)

  1. Common Bacterial Causes
    1. Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis
    2. Pneumococcus
    3. Staphylococcus aureus (also Bacterial Tracheitis)
    4. HaemophilusInfluenzae (also Epiglottitis)
    5. Moraxella catarrhalis
  2. Other Bacterial Causes
    1. Fusobacterium necrophorium (Fusobacterium Pharyngitis)
      1. Causes 10% of Pharyngitis cases in young adults and adolescents
      2. Risk of Lemierre Syndrome (high morbidity and mortality)
      3. Consider empiric treatment in young patients with severe, prolonged cases >5 days
    2. Other Streptococcal species (Groups B, C, G)
    3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    4. Chlamydia pneumoniae
    5. Klebsiella
    6. Moraxella
    7. Mycoplasma
    8. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    9. Mycobacterium
  3. Rare Bacterial Causes
    1. Tularemia
    2. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
    3. Prevotella intermedia
  4. General Bacterial processes
    1. Tonsillitis
    2. Ludwig's Angina

III. Causes: Viral (Pharyngitis lasts 5-7 days)

  1. Common Causes
    1. Rhinovirus (Spring and fall, mild Symptoms)
    2. Coronavirus (Winter, mild Symptoms)
  2. Other Causes
    1. Adenovirus (Moderate Symptoms, Conjunctivitis)
    2. Influenza (Epidemics)
    3. Parainfluenza (Types 1-4)
    4. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV, Mononucleosis)
    5. Coxsackievirus
    6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Mononucleosis-Like Syndrome)
    7. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Stomatitis
    8. Acute HIV Infection (Acute Retroviral Syndrome)
    9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
    10. Myxovirus
    11. Reovirus
    12. Enteric virus
    13. Mumps
    14. Rabies

IV. Causes: Fungal

  1. Common Causes
    1. Candida albicans
  2. Other Causes
    1. Rhinosporidium
    2. Cryptococcus
    3. Histoplasma
    4. Blastomyces
    5. Paracoccidioides

V. Causes: Nasal and paranasal Disease

VI. Causes: Malignancy

VIII. Causes: Miscellaneous

  1. Trauma
    1. Accidents
    2. Child Abuse
    3. Structure fire or smoke exposure
    4. Post-procedure (e.g. Bronchoscopy, Endoscopy or Endotracheal Intubation)
  2. Chemical Burns
    1. Caustic Ingestion
    2. Medication related (e.g. Aspirin)
  3. Thermal Injury (Hot foods or liquids)
  4. Contact Stomatitis
  5. Mouth breathing
  6. Vocal cord granuloma
  7. Toxins
    1. Cigarette or Marijuana smoke
    2. Smog or environmental pollutants
    3. Snorting or sniffing other illicit substances
  8. Gastroesophageal Reflux (Heartburn)
    1. Laryngopharyngeal reflux

IX. References

  1. Anderson (2019) Crit Dec Emerg Med 33(9): 3-10
  2. Degowin (1987) Diagnostic Exam p. 149-151
  3. Gwaltney in Mandell (2000) Infectious Dis, p. 656-61
  4. Vincent (2004) Am Fam Physician 69(6):1465-70 [PubMed]

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Related Studies

Ontology: Pharyngitis (C0031350)

Definition (MSH) Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
Definition (MSHCZE) Faryngitida (pharyngitis) – zánět hltanu. Větš. součást zánětu horních cest dýchacích (virových, bakteriálních). Projevuje se bolestivostí v hrdle, zarudnutím, hlenovým povlakem. Existují i chronické formy zánětu jako následek častých zánětů akutních, zejm. při současném působení dalších faktorů (snížená odolnost, vystavení dráždivým látkám). Srov. nazofaryngitida, angína, laryngitida. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI) Inflammation of the throat most often caused by viral and bacterial infections. Other causes include allergens, chemical substances, and trauma.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by inflammation of the throat.
Definition (CSP) inflammation of the throat.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D010612
SnomedCT 141458004, 164261009, 37616004, 405737000
English Pharyngitides, Inflamed throat, pharynx inflammation, inflammation of pharynx (physical finding), pharyngeal inflammation, inflammation of pharynx, pharyngitis (diagnosis), pharyngitis, Pharyngitis NOS, Pharyngitis [Disease/Finding], throat inflammation, sore throat, throat infection, infections throat, inflammation throat, soreness throat, Inflamed;throat, Inflammation;throat, inflamed throat, throat soreness, inflamed throats, infection throat, throat inflamed, irritation of the throat, Inflamed throat (finding), Inflamed throat (disorder), Pharynx inflamed, PHARYNGITIS, Pharyngitis, Pharyngitis (disorder), inflammation; pharynx, inflammation; throat, pharynx; inflammation, throat; inflammation, Pharyngitis, NOS, inflammation of the throat, Pharyngeal inflammation
French PHARYNGITE, Inflammation du pharynx, Pharyngite SAI, Pharyngite
Portuguese FARINGITE, Inflamação faríngea, Faringite NE, Faringite
Spanish FARINGITIS, Inflamación faríngea, Faringitis NEOM, faringitis infecciosa, garganta inflamada, garganta inflamada (trastorno), faringitis (trastorno), faringitis, Faringitis
German PHARYNGITIS, Rachenentzuendung, Pharyngitis NNB, Pharyngitis
Dutch farynxontsteking, faryngitis NAO, farynx; ontsteking, keel; ontsteking, ontsteking; farynx, ontsteking; keel, faryngitis, Faryngitis
Italian Infiammazione faringea, Faringite NAS, Faringite
Japanese 咽頭炎, 咽頭炎NOS, 咽頭の炎症, イントウエン, イントウノエンショウ, イントウエンNOS
Swedish Svalginflammation
Czech zánět hltanu, faryngitida, hltan - zánět, Faryngitida, Faryngitida NOS, Faryngeální zánět, pharyngitis
Finnish Nielutulehdus
Polish Ból gardła, Zapalenie gardła
Hungarian Pharyngealis gyulladás, pharyngitis k.m.n., pharyngitis
Norwegian Faryngitt, Svelgbetennelse

Ontology: Oropharyngeal Dysphagia (C0267071)

Definition (NCI) Difficulty in swallowing due to an abnormality in the mouth or throat.(NICHD)
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D003680
ICD9 787.22
ICD10 R13.12
SnomedCT 71457002
English Oropharyngeal Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing during oropharyngeal phase (symptom), difficulty swallowing during oropharyngeal phase, oropharyngeal phase dysphagia, Dysphagia, oropharyngeal, Dysphagia, oropharyngeal phase, oropharyngeal dysphagia, pharyngeal dysphagia, Oropharyngeal dysphagia, Pharyngeal dysphagia, Transfer dysphagia, Oropharyngeal dysphagia (disorder), Dysphagia, Oropharyngeal
French Dysphagie oropharyngée, Dysphagie oro-pharyngée
Czech orofaryngeální dysfagie
Norwegian Dysfagi som skyldes forstyrrelser i svelget
Spanish disfagia de transferencia, disfagia faríngea, disfagia orofaríngea (trastorno), disfagia orofaríngea