II. Epidemiology

  1. Incidence of Thyroid Carcinoma US: 20,000/year
  2. Incidence by Nodule type
    1. Single Nodules: 5-10% are carcinoma
    2. Multinodular Goiter: <5% are carcinoma

III. Types: Thyroid Carcinoma

  1. Papillary carcinoma (up to 80%)
    1. Insidious growth
    2. May go undiagnosed until metastases
  2. Follicular Carcinoma (10-25%)
    1. Female > Male
    2. Peaks at age 50-60 years
  3. Medullary Carcinoma (5-10%)
    1. Secretes multiple substances including Calcitonin
    2. Associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
      1. MEN IIa (Sipple's Syndrome)
        1. Pheochromocytoma and Parathyroid hyperplasia
      2. MEN IIb
        1. Pheochromocytoma and mucosal neuroma
  4. Undifferentiated Carcinoma (5-10%)
  5. Thyroid Lymphoma (5%)

IV. Risk Factors (and Red Flags)

  1. Male gender (especially under age 40 years)
  2. Age extremes (under age 20 and over age 65)
  3. Rapid painless growth of Thyroid Nodule
  4. Local symptoms consistent with invasion
    1. Dysphagia
    2. Neck Pain
    3. Hoarseness or raspy voice
  5. Head and neck radiation history
  6. Family History of Thyroid malignancy
    1. Thyroid Cancer
    2. Thyroid polyposis (Gardner's Syndrome)
  7. Thyroid fixation to skin or trachea
  8. Hard Nodule on palpation

V. Evaluation

VI. Prognosis

  1. Papillary carcinoma
    1. Best prognosis of Thyroid Cancer
    2. Ten year survival: 70-80%
  2. Follicular Carcinoma
    1. Five year survival: 30%
  3. Medullary Carcinoma
    1. Variable prognosis

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Related Studies

Ontology: Thyroid Neoplasm (C0040136)

Definition (NCI) A benign or malignant neoplasm affecting the thyroid gland.
Definition (MSH) Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Definition (CSP) new abnormal thyroid tissue that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
Concepts Neoplastic Process (T191)
MSH D013964
SnomedCT 127018007
English Neoplasm, Thyroid, Neoplasms, Thyroid, Thyroid Neoplasms, Thyroid Gland Neoplasm, NEOPL THYROID, THYROID NEOPL, neoplasm of thyroid gland, neoplasm of thyroid gland (diagnosis), neoplasm located in the thyroid gland, Thryoid neoplasia, Thyroid neoplasia, Neoplasm thyroid, Thyroid neoplasm NOS, Thyroid neoplasms, Thyroid Neoplasms [Disease/Finding], Thyroid Neoplasm, thyroid gland tumor, thyroid tumour, gland thyroid tumors, neoplasm thyroid, thyroid neoplasms, thyroid tumor, tumor thyroid, gland neoplasms thyroid, neoplasms thyroid, thyroid tumours, tumor thyroid gland, gland thyroid tumours, thyroid tumors, thyroid neoplasm, thyroid neoplasm location: thyroid gland, thyroid neoplasm location: thyroid gland (diagnosis), Thyroid gland--Tumors, Thyroid neoplasm, Thyroid tumor, Thyroid tumour, Tumor of thyroid gland, Tumour of thyroid gland, Neoplasm of thyroid gland (disorder), Neoplasm of thyroid gland, Neoplasm of Thyroid Gland, Neoplasm of Thyroid, Neoplasm of the Thyroid Gland, Neoplasm of the Thyroid, Thyroid Gland Tumor, Thyroid Tumor, Tumor of Thyroid Gland, Tumor of Thyroid, Tumor of the Thyroid Gland, Tumor of the Thyroid
Italian Tumore della tiroide, Tumori della tiroide, Neoplasia della tiroide, Tumore della tiroide NAS, Neoplasia tiroidea, Neoplasie della tiroide
Dutch neoplasma thyroïd, thryoïdneoplasie, thyroïdneoplasie, schildklierneoplasma NAO, schildkliertumor, schildklierneoplasmata, thyroïdneoplasma, Schildkliertumor, Schildkliertumoren, Tumor, schildklier-, Tumoren, schildklier-
French Tumeur de la thyroïde SAI, Néoplasie thyroïdienne, Tumeur de la thyroïde, Tumeur thyroïdienne, Tumeurs de la thyroïde, Tumeurs thyroïdiennes
German Schilddruesenneoplasie, Neubildung der Schilddruese NNB, Neubildung Schilddruese, Schilddruesentumor, Neubildung der Schilddruese, Neubildungen der Schilddruese, Neubildungen, Thyreoidea-, Schilddrüsentumoren
Portuguese Neoplasia da tiroideia NE, Neoplasia da tiroideia, Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide, Câncer da Glândula Tireoide, Neoplasias da tiroideia, Tumor da tireóide
Spanish Neoplasia de tiroides NEOM, Neoplasia tiroidea, Tumor tiroideo, neoplasia de la glándula tiroides (trastorno), neoplasia de la glándula tiroides, Neoplasias tiroideas, Neoplasia de tiroides, Neoplasias de la Tiroides
Japanese 甲状腺の新生物, コウジョウセンシンセイブツ, コウジョウセンノシンセイブツ, 甲状腺新生物NOS, コウジョウセンシュヨウ, コウジョウセンシンセイブツNOS, 甲状腺新生物, 甲状腺腫瘍
Swedish Sköldkörteltumörer
Finnish Kilpirauhasen kasvaimet
Czech Neoplasma štítnice, Nádory štítné žlázy, Novotvar štítné žlázy, Novotvar štítné žlázy NOS, Nádor štítné žlázy, thyreoidea - nádory, nádory štítné žlázy, tyreoidea - nádory
Polish Nowotwory tarczycy
Hungarian Pajzsmirigy neoplasia, Pajzsmirigy neoplasia k.m.n., Pajzsmirigydaganat, Pajzsmirigy-daganat, Pajzsmirigy neoplasmák, Thyreoid daganat, Pajzsmirigytumor
Norwegian Svulster i skjoldbruskkjertelen, Skjoldbruskkjertelsvulster, Skjoldbruskkjertelneoplasmer, Tyreoideaneoplasmer, Tyreoideasvulster, Neoplasmer i skjoldbruskkjertelen

Ontology: Thyroid carcinoma (C0549473)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It makes hormones that help the body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater risk if you

  • Are between ages 25 and 65
  • Are a woman
  • Are Asian
  • Have a family member who has had thyroid disease
  • Have had radiation treatments to your head or neck

You should see a doctor if you have a lump or swelling in your neck. Doctors use a physical exam, blood tests, imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you have and how far the cancer has spread. Many patients receive a combination of treatments. They may include surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

Definition (NCI) A carcinoma arising from the thyroid gland. It is usually an adenocarcinoma and includes the following main subtypes: follicular, papillary, medullary, poorly differentiated, and anaplastic.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Cancer that forms in the thyroid gland (an organ at the base of the throat that makes hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight). Four main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope.
Concepts Neoplastic Process (T191)
MSH D013964
English THYROID CARCINOMA, Thyroid Gland Carcinoma, Thyroid carcinoma NOS, Carcinoma thyroid, Thyroid cancer, thyroid cancer (diagnosis), thyroid cancer, Cancer of Thyroid, Cancer of the Thyroid, Cancers, Thyroid, Thyroid Cancer, Thyroid Cancers, Cancer of thyroid, Thyroid Gland Cancer, carcinoma thyroid gland, thyroid gland carcinoma, Carcinoma;thyroid gland, carcinoma thyroid, carcinoma of thyroid, thyroid ca, Cancer, Thyroid, Thyroid gland--Cancer, Thyroid cancer, NOS, thyroid carcinoma, carcinoma of thyroid gland, thyroid carcinoma (diagnosis), Thyroid Carcinomas, Carcinomas, Thyroid, Thyroid carcinoma, Head and Neck Cancer, Thyroid, Carcinoma of Thyroid Gland, Carcinoma of Thyroid, Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland, Carcinoma of the Thyroid, Thyroid Carcinoma, Carcinoma, Thyroid, carcinoma of the thyroid gland
Dutch thyroïdcarcinoom, schildkliercarcinoom NAO, schildklierkanker, carcinoom thyroïd, Schildklierkanker, Tumor van de schildklier
French Carcinome thyroïdien, Carcinome de la thyroïde, Carcinome de la thyroïde SAI, Cancer de la thyroïde, CANCER DE LA THYROIDE, Cancer thyroïdien, Tumeur maligne de la thyroïde, Tumeur maligne thyroïdienne
German Schilddruesenkarzinom NNB, Schilddruesenkarzinom, Schilddruesenkrebs, Karzinom der Schilddruese, Krebs der Schilddrüse, Schilddrüsenkrebs
Italian Carcinoma della tiroide NAS, Cancro della tiroide, Carcinoma della tiroide
Portuguese Carcinoma da tiroideia, Cancro da tireóide, Carcinoma da tiroideia NE, CARCINOMA DA TIROIDE, Câncer de Tireoide, Câncer da Tireoide
Spanish Cáncer de tiroides, Carcinoma de tiroides, Carcinoma de tiroides NEOM, Cáncer de Tiroides, Cáncer Tiroideo
Japanese 甲状腺癌NOS, 甲状腺癌, コウジョウセンガンNOS, コウジョウセンガン
Czech Rakovina štítné žlázy, Karcinom štítné žlázy NOS, Karcinom štítné žlázy, karcinom štítné žlázy, tyreoidea - karcinom, rakovina štítné žlázy, štítná žláza - karcinom
Hungarian Pajzsmirigy rák, Pajzsmirigy-carcinoma, Pajzsmirigy carcinomája, Pajzsmirigy-carcinoma k.m.n.
Norwegian Kreft i skjoldbruskkjertelen, Skjoldbruskkjertelkreft, Tyreoideakreft