II. Epidemiology

  1. One in 3 new cases of childhood Diabetes Mellitus in U.S. are type 2

III. Risk Factors

  1. Overweight
    1. Body Mass Index (BMI) >85th percentile for age and gender or
    2. Weight for Height >85th percentile for age and gender or
    3. Ideal Weight for height >120th percentile for age and gender
  2. Family History of Type 2 Diabetes in first or second degree relative
  3. Maternal diabetes or Gestational Diabetes history
  4. Higher risk ethnic and racial groups
    1. Asian
    2. Black
    3. Hispanic
    4. Native American
    5. Pacific Islander
  5. Insulin Resistance related findings
    1. Acanthosis Nigricans
    2. Polycystic ovarian syndrome
    3. Small for Gestational Age birth weight

IV. Screening: Indications (per ADA)

  1. See Diabetes Screening
  2. Child over age 10 years (or Puberty) AND
  3. Meets Overweight criteria (see above) AND
  4. Two additional risk factors (see above)

V. Findings: Presentations

  1. Asymptomatic Hyperglycemia in 40% of cases
  2. Symptomatic Hyperglycemia (e.g. Polyuria, polydipsia, blurred vision, Unintentional Weight Loss)
  3. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (25% of new Type II cases)

VI. Diagnosis

  1. See Diabetes Mellitus Diagnostic Criteria
  2. Pitfalls
    1. Overweight children represent 24% of new onset Type I Diabetes
    2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis is present in up to 25% of children at Type II Diabetes diagnosis
    3. Autoimmune labs used to identify Type I Diabetes may be present in Type II Diabetes in up to 10% of children
      1. Glutamic acid decarboxylase
      2. Islet Antigen-2 Antibodies

VII. Associated Conditions

  1. Hypertension
    1. Present in up to 32% of teens at time of diagnosis
  2. Hyperlipidemia
  3. Nephropathy
  4. Retinopathy

VIII. Labs

  1. Hemoglobin A1C
    1. Obtain every 3 months
    2. Goal <7% for teens and children
  2. Other labs (at diagnosis and annually)
    1. Lipid profile
    2. Liver Function Tests
    3. Urine Microalbumin

IX. Labs: Self-monitored fingerstick Glucose Indications

  1. Insulin (check 3 times daily)
  2. Change in medication dosing or treatment regimen
  3. Comorbid illness
  4. Inadequate glycemic control
  5. Symptoms of Hypoglycemia

X. Evaluation

  1. Time of diagnosis
    1. Labs: Hemoglobin A1C, Lipid profile, Liver Function Tests, Urine Microalbumin
    2. Retinopathy screening
    3. Sleep Apnea screening
    4. Diabetes education including Glucose, nutrition goals, and weight goals for child
    5. Blood Pressure
  2. Every 3 months
    1. Hemoglobin A1C
    2. Lifestyle, weight, exexrcise and Medication Compliance
    3. Self-monitored Glucose log review
  3. Annually
    1. Influenza Vaccine
    2. Labs: Lipid profile, Liver Function Tests, Urine Microalbumin
    3. Sleep Apnea screening
    4. Retinopathy screening

XI. Management

  1. General measures
    1. Nutrition counseling with diabetic educator or dietician
      1. Increase nutrient dense, high quality foods (e.g. vegetables)
      2. Decrease calorie-dense, nutrient poor foods (e.g. simple carbohydrates)
      3. Weight goal <85th percentile for age and gender
    2. Exercise
      1. Moderate to vigorous Exercise for 60 minutes per day (one session or split multiple times daily)
      2. Limit non-academic Screen Time to <2 hours per day
      3. Adjust medication dosing and timing to reduce the risk of Hypoglycemia with Exercise
    3. Family Involvement
      1. Lifestyle changes as a family are more likely to result in success for the individual child
      2. Recognize the need for psychosocial support for the child
  2. Medications
    1. Metformin (age 10 years old and older)
      1. Start at 500 mg and increase in 500 mg increments to max of 2000 mg (regardless of weight)
    2. Insulin
      1. Indications
        1. Ketosis or Ketoacidosis
        2. Random plasma Glucose 250 mg/dl or greater
        3. Hemoglobin A1C >9%
  3. Comorbidities
    1. Hypertension Management indications
      1. Systolic or diastolic Blood Pressure >90th or 95% percentile AND
      2. Criteria met on 3 separate occasions

XII. Prevention

  1. Influenza Vaccine yearly
  2. Prevnar 13 followed at least 8 weeks later by Pneumovax (once)

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window