II. Anatomy

  1. Anatomy Images
    1. giAdrenalGrayBB1183.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. giAdrenalGrayBB1184.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  2. Adrenal Gland is a flat, triangular organ that sits atop each Kidney
  3. Adrenal Gland is without ducts
  4. Adrenal Gland is divided into two distinct anatomical and physiologic components
    1. Adrenal Medulla is a modified sympathetic Ganglion releasing Sympathomimetic agents (epineprine, Norepinephrine)
    2. Adrenal Cortex generates inter-related steroid Hormones (mineralcorticoids, Glucocorticoids and androgens)

III. Physiology

  1. Physiology Images
    1. AdrenalFunction.png
  2. Adrenal Medulla (sympathetic agent synthesis)
    1. See Sympathetic Nervous System
    2. See Alpha Adrenergic Receptor
    3. See Beta Adrenergic Receptor
    4. Inner structure of the Adrenal Gland
    5. Functions as a sympathetic Ganglion that releases Sympathomimetics in response to stressors
    6. Epinephrine
      1. Primary Adrenal Medulla released Catecholamine (more than Norepinephrine)
      2. Alpha Adrenergic Agonist Effects
        1. Vasoconstriction (increased Systemic Vascular Resistance and Blood Pressure)
        2. Increases Vital Organ Perfusion (myocardial perfusion, cerebral perfusion)
        3. Decreases Non-Vital Organ Perfusion (splanchnic, intestinal, renal and skin perfusion)
      3. Beta 1 Adrenergic Agonist Effects (at physiologic doses)
        1. Increases myocardial contractility
        2. Increases Heart Rate
      4. Beta 2 Adrenergic Agonist Effects
        1. Relaxes Bronchial Smooth Muscle (bronchodilation)
        2. Stimulates Gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and glycogen breakdown
    7. Norepinephrine
      1. Neurotransmitter for all other postganglionic sympathetic Neurons
      2. Potent Alpha 1 Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Effects
        1. Potent arterial and venous Vasoconstriction
      3. Beta 1 Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Effects
        1. Similar potency to Epinephrine
        2. Increases myocardial contractility
      4. No Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Activity
  3. Adrenal Cortex (steroid Hormone synthesis from Cholesterol)
    1. Outer structure of the Adrenal Gland
    2. Mineralcorticoids (esp. Aldosterone)
      1. See Sodium and Water Homeostasis
      2. Increases Sodium retention and Potassium excretion
      3. Increases water reabsorption from Kidney
    3. Glucocorticoids (esp. Cortisol)
      1. Mobilizes available energy sources (Glucose, fats, Amino Acids)
        1. Increases Serum Glucose by stimulating liver Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
        2. Increases serum Fatty Acids by promoting lipolysis of adipose Triglyceride stores
        3. Increases blood Amino Acids by breaking down Proteins (outside liver)
          1. Within liver, Cortisol induces Protein synthesis
      2. Antiinflammatory activity
        1. Inhibit histamine release
        2. Inhibit Lymphocyte production
        3. Stabilize MacrophageLysosomes
      3. Increases gastric acid production
    4. Androgens
      1. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
      2. Androstenedione
      3. Testosterone

V. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmasters, Miami, p. 132-46

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Related Studies

Ontology: Adrenal Cortex (C0001613)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The outer part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The adrenal cortex makes androgen and corticosteroid hormones.
Definition (NCI) The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It secretes mineralocorticoids, androgens, and glucocorticoids. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D000302
SnomedCT 68594002
LNC LP16667-5
English Adrenal Cortex, Cortex, Adrenal, Cortical, Cortex (Glandula suprarenalis), Suprarenal cortex, Cortex of adrenal gland, Cortex of suprarenal gland, Cortex glandulae suprarenalis, adrenal cortex, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal cortex structure (body structure), Adrenal cortex structure, Adrenal cortex, NOS
Swedish Binjurebark
Czech nadledvinová kůra
Finnish Lisämunuaiskuori
Russian NADPOCHECHNIKOV KORA, НАДПОЧЕЧНИКОВ КОРА
Croatian NADBUBREŽNA ŽLIJEZDA, KORA
Latvian Virsnieru garoza
Polish Kora nadnercza
Norwegian Cortex glandulae suprarenalis, Binyrebark
Portuguese Córtex Suprarrenal
Spanish corteza adrenal, corteza suprarrenal, estructura de la corteza suprarrenal (estructura corporal), estructura de la corteza suprarrenal, Corteza Suprarrenal
German Nebennierenrinde
Italian Corteccia surrenale
Dutch Bijnierschors
French Corticosurrénale, Cortex surrénal, Cortico-surrénale

Ontology: Adrenal Glands (C0001625)

Definition (NCI) A flattened, roughly triangular body resting upon the upper end of each kidney; it is one of the ductless glands furnishing internal secretions (epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medulla and steroid hormones from the cortex).
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A small gland that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. These hormones help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Suprarenal gland. A flattened, roughly triangular body resting upon the upper end of each kidney; it is one of the ductless glands furnishing internal secretions (epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medulla and steroid hormones from the cortex). (NCI)
Definition (MSH) A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Definition (CSP) paired glands situated in the retroperitoneal tissues at the superior pole of each kidney.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D000311
SnomedCT 23451007
HL7 ADR
LNC LP33443-0, MTHU016717
English Adrenal Glands, Gland, Adrenal, Glands, Adrenal, Glandula suprarenalis, Set of adrenal glands, Suprarenal gland, adrenals glands, adrenal gland, adrenal glands, both adrenal glands, bilateral adrenal gland, Adrenal glands, suprarenal gland, ADRENAL GLAND, Adrenal gland, Adrenal structure, Adrenal structure (body structure), Adrenal gland, NOS, Adrenal Gland, Adrenals, Adrenal
Swedish Binjurar
Czech nadledviny, glandula suprarenalis, nadledvinky
Finnish Lisämunuaiset
Russian NADPOCHECHNIKI, НАДПОЧЕЧНИКИ
Spanish estructura suprarrenal (estructura corporal), estructura de la glándula suprarrenal (estructura corporal), estructura de la glándula suprarrenal, estructura suprarrenal, Glándulas Adrenales, Glándula Adrenal, Glándula Suprarrenal, glándula adrenal, glándula suprarrenal, Glándulas Suprarrenales
Croatian NADBUBREŽNE ŽLIJEZDE
Latvian Virsnieres, Virsnieru dziedzeri
Polish Gruczoły nadnerczowe, Nadnercza, Nadnercze
Norwegian Binyrer, Glandulae suprarenales
Portuguese Glândulas Suprarrenais, Glândula Suprarrenal, Glândula Adrenal, Glândula Ad-Renal, Glândulas Ad-Renais, Glândulas Adrenais
French Glandes surrénales, Surrénales, Surrénale, Glande surrénale
German Glandula suprarenalis, Nebennieren, Glandulae suprarenales
Italian Ghiandole surrenali
Dutch Bijnier, Bijnieren, Glandula suprarenalis

Ontology: Adrenal Medulla (C0001629)

Definition (NCI) The inner part of the adrenal gland; it synthesizes, stores and releases catecholamines. (MeSH)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The adrenal medulla makes chemicals such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which are involved in sending nerve signals.
Definition (MSH) The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Definition (CSP) inner part of the adrenal gland; it synthesizes, stores and releases catecholamines.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D000313
SnomedCT 38254008
English Adrenal Medulla, Adrenal Medullas, Medulla, Adrenal, Medullas, Adrenal, Medullary, Medulla (Glandula suprarenalis), Suprarenal medulla, Medulla glandulae suprarenalis, Medulla of suprarenal gland, adrenal medulla, Medulla of adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, AdM - Adrenal medulla, Adrenal medulla structure (body structure), Adrenal medulla structure
Swedish Binjuremärg
Czech nadledviny - dřeň
Finnish Lisämunuaisydin
Russian NADPOCHECHNIKOV MOZGOVOI SLOI, НАДПОЧЕЧНИКОВ МОЗГОВОЙ СЛОЙ
Polish Rdzeń nadnercza
Norwegian Binyremarg, Medulla glandulae suprarenalis
Portuguese Medula Suprarrenal, Medula Adrenal
Spanish estructura de la médula suprarrenal (estructura corporal), estructura de la médula suprarrenal, médula adrenal, médula suprarrenal, Médula Suprarrenal
German Nebennierenmark
Italian Midollare del surrene
Dutch Bijniermerg, Medulla glandulae suprarenalis
French Médullosurrénale, Médulla surrénale, Médullo-surrénale