II. Causes

  1. See Medication Causes of Hyperpigmentation
  2. Adrenal Insufficiency
    1. May be associated with Candidiasis in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome
  3. Darker pigmentation related to ethnicity
  4. Tobacco Abuse
  5. Medication Causes of Hyperpigmentation
  6. Neurofibromatosis 1
  7. McCune-Albright Syndrome
  8. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

III. Differential Diagnosis

  1. See Tooth Discoloration
  2. Oral Melanoma
    1. Rare, but devastating outcomes if missed when early, focal

IV. Management

  1. Exclude Melanoma
  2. Eliminate or reduce dosing of causative agents
  3. Consider Tooth Discoloration causes that may be discoloring mucosa as well
  4. Refractory cases
    1. Surgical mucosal stripping of hyperpigmented tissue (e.g. laser, Cryotherapy, scalpel)

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Related Studies

Ontology: Oral melanoplakia (C0267013)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 196577004, 84647002, 266430000
English melanoplakia, melanoplakia (diagnosis), Melanoplakia oral, Melanoplakia, Buccal pigmented patches, Oral pigmented patches, Oral melanoplakia, Melanoplakia (disorder), Oral melanoplakia (disorder)
Spanish Melanoplaquia oral, melanoplaquia (trastorno), melanoplaquia bucal (trastorno), melanoplaquia bucal, melanoplaquia, parches pigmentados bucales, parches pigmentados orales
Dutch melanoplakie oraal
German orale Melanoplakie
Japanese 口腔内黒斑症, コウコウナイコクハンショウ, コウクウナイコクハンショウ
Czech Melanoplakie úst
Portuguese Melanoplaquia oral
Italian Malanoplachia orale
French Mélanoplakie orale
Hungarian Melanoplakia oralis

Ontology: Melanin pigmentation of oral mucosa (C0399483)

Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 235038002
English Hyperpigment of oral mucosa, Melanin pigmentatn oral mucosa, Hyperpigmentation of oral mucosa, Melanin pigmentation of oral mucosa, Melanin pigmentation of oral mucosa (disorder)
Spanish pigmentación melánica de la mucosa oral (trastorno), pigmentación melánica de la mucosa oral