II. Definitions

  1. Onychomadesis
    1. Spontaneous shedding/sloughing and separation of nail plate from nail matrix resulting in nail loss
  2. Onycholysis
    1. Spontaneous separation of nail plate from nail bed (typically starting from distal end)

III. Epidemiology

  1. Uncommon

IV. Pathophysiology

  1. Temporary cessation of nail matrix growth
  2. Results in Nail Dystrophy and nail loss

V. Signs

  1. Brittle nails
  2. Nail bed region may have white or yellow streaks
  3. Transverse nail splitting
  4. Nail appears to peal away from nail bed
  5. Spontaneous loss of multiple nails

VI. Causes

  1. Post-infectious in first 3-12 weeks (esp. Coxsackie virus such as Hand Foot and Mouth Disease)
  2. Kawasaki Disease
  3. Nail Trauma
  4. Chemotherapy
  5. Radiation Therapy

VII. Differential Diagnosis

VIII. Prognosis

  1. Normal Nail Growth resumes within 1 to 4 months

IX. References

  1. Jhun, Raam and DeClerck in Herbert (2015) EM:Rap 15(12): 3-4
  2. Metzgar (2019) Am Fam Physician 100(8): 497-8 [PubMed]

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Ontology: Onychomadesis (C0263540)

Definition (NCI) Loss of all or a portion of a nail.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by loss of all or a portion of the nail.
Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
SnomedCT 22743000
English Spont shed nail from matrix, Complete nail loss, onychomadesis, onychomadesis (physical finding), nails onychomadesis, onychomadesis was noted, Loss of nails, Nail Loss, loss nails, loss nail, nail loss, Nail loss, Nail slough, Claw sloughed, Complete loss of claw, Claw slough, Complete loss of nail, Nail sloughed, Complete loss of nails, Onychomadesis, Spontaneous shedding of nail from nail matrix, OHM - Onychomadesis, Onychomadesis (disorder), loss; nail, nail; loss, onychoptosis
Italian Onicomadesi, Caduta dell'unghia
Dutch nagelverlies, nagel; verlies, verlies; nagel, onychomadesis
German Verlust des Nagels, Onychomadesis
Portuguese Perda de unhas, Onicomadese
Spanish Pérdida de uñas, defluvium unguium, onicomadesis (trastorno), onicomadesis, pérdida completa de las uñas, Onicomadesis
Japanese 爪脱落, 爪甲脱落症, ツメダツラク, ソウコウダツラクショウ, ソウダツラク
French Perte d'ongle, Onychomadèse
Czech Ztráta nehtu, Onychomadéza
Hungarian Köröm elvesztése, Onychomadesis