II. Pathophysiology

  1. Bacteria and other pathogens infect subgingival dental Plaque
  2. Pathogens invade and inflame Gingival epithelium

III. Risk Factors

  1. Dental Caries
  2. Poor dental hygiene
  3. Older patients with comorbid illness
  4. Tobacco Abuse
  5. Immunosuppression
    1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    2. Diabetes Mellitus
  6. Exposure to Saliva of a patient with Periodontal Disease
    1. Asikainen (1997) J Am Dent Assoc 128: 1263-71 [PubMed]

IV. Types

  1. Gingivitis
    1. Inflammation of gums (swelling, erythema) that bleed more easily
    2. Periodontal Disease typically starts with Gingivitis
  2. Periodontitis
    1. Inflammation spreads to the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone
  3. Pericoronitis
    1. Localized infection within Gingival flap as tooth erupts (e.g. impacted wisdom tooth)

VI. Prevention

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Related Studies

Ontology: Gingival Diseases (C0017563)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

If you have gum disease, you're not alone. Many U.S. adults currently have some form of the disease. It ranges from simple gum inflammation, called gingivitis, to serious damage to the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. In the worst cases, you can lose teeth.

In gingivitis, the gums become red and swollen. They can bleed easily. Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease. You can usually reverse it with daily brushing and flossing and regular cleanings by a dentist or dental hygienist. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis. If you have periodontitis, the gums pull away from the teeth and form pockets that become infected. If not treated, the bones, gums and connective tissue that support the teeth are destroyed.

NIH: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

Definition (CSP) condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the gums or gingiva.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D005882
SnomedCT 266489007, 155642009, 18718003
English Disease, Gingival, Diseases, Gingival, Gingival Disease, gingiva disorder, GINGIVAL DIS, Gingival Diseases, Gingival disorder NOS, Gum disorder, Gingival Diseases [Disease/Finding], gingival diseases, gum disease, gum disorder, Disease;gums, periodontal diseases, gingival disease, periodontal disease, parodontosis, Gum Disease, Gums--Diseases, Gingival disease, Gum disease, Gingival disorder, Gingival disease (disorder), disease (or disorder); gingiva, disease (or disorder); gum, Gingival disease, NOS, Gingival disorder, NOS, Gum disease, NOS
Italian Patologia gengivale, Disturbo della gengiva, Malattia gengivale, Patologia gengivale NAS, Malattie della gengiva
Dutch tandvleesaandoening, tandvleesziekte, gingiva-aandoening NAO, aandoening; gingiva, aandoening; tandvlees, gingiva-aandoening, Gingivaziekte, Ziekte, Gingiva-
French Maladie gingivale, Affection gingivale SAI, Trouble gingival, Gingivopathies, Maladies de la gencive, Maladies des gencives, Maladies gingivales
German Erkrankung der Gingiva, Erkrankungen des Zahnfleischs NNB, Zahnfleischerkrankung, Gingivakrankheiten
Portuguese Doença gengival, Afecção gengival NE, Afecção gengival, Doenças das Gengivas, Doença Gengival, Doenças Gengivais, Perturbação gengival, Doenças da Gengiva
Spanish Enfermedad gingival, Trastorno gingival NEOM, Trastorno de las encías, Enfermedades Gingivales, enfermedad de las encías, enfermedad gingival (trastorno), enfermedad gingival, trastorno gingival, Trastorno gingival, Enfermedades de las Encías
Japanese 歯肉障害NOS, 歯肉障害, シニクショウガイNOS, シニクショウガイ, シニクシッカン, 歯肉症, 歯肉腫, エプーリス, 歯肉疾患
Swedish Tandköttssjukdomar
Finnish Ikenien sairaudet
Czech Onemocnění dásně NOS, Porucha dásně, Onemocnění dásně, nemoci dásní, dásně - nemoci, onemocnění dásně, onemocnění gingivy
Croatian Not Translated[Gingival Diseases]
Polish Choroby dziąseł, Nadziąślak
Hungarian Fogíny betegség k.m.n., Fogíny betegség, Fogíny-eltérés, Fogíny betegsége
Norwegian Gingivale sykdommer, Tannkjøttsykdommer

Ontology: Periodontal Diseases (C0031090)

Definition (MSH) Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Definition (NCI) An inflammatory process of the gingival tissues and/or periodontal membrane of the teeth, resulting in an abnormally deep gingival sulcus, possibly producing periodontal pockets and loss of alveolar bone support.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder in the gingival tissue around the teeth.
Definition (CSP) condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D010510
ICD10 K05.6
SnomedCT 13877006, 196354003, 2556008
English Disease, Periodontal, Diseases, Periodontal, periodontium disorder, periodontal disease, Parodontoses, Parodontosis, Periodontal disease, unspecified, Periodontal Diseases, PERIODONTAL DIS, Periodontal Disorder, Periodontal Disease, Periodontal disorder NOS, Periodontal Diseases [Disease/Finding], periodontal disease (diagnosis), Disease of supporting structures of teeth (disorder), Periodontal disease, Disease of supporting structures of teeth, Periodontal disease (disorder), disease (or disorder); parodontal, disease (or disorder); periodontal, parodontosis, Disease of supporting structures of teeth, NOS, Periodontal disease, NOS
Italian Malattia periodontale, Patologia periodontale NAS, Parodontosi, Malattie periodontali
Dutch periodontale ziekte NAO, aandoening; parodontaal, aandoening; periodontaal, Periodontale aandoening, niet gespecificeerd, periodontale ziekten, Parodontose, Periodontiumziekte, Periodontiumziekten, Ziekte, periodontium-, Ziekten, periodontium-
French Trouble périodontal SAI, Parodontopathie, Parodontopathies, Maladies parodontales, Maladies du parodonte, Parodontoses
German Parodontoseerkrankung NNB, Krankheit des Parodonts, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Paradontose, Parodontale Krankheiten, Parodontose
Portuguese Afecção periodôntica NE, Paradontose, Doença periodontal, Doenças Periodontais, Parodontose
Spanish Trastorno periodontal NEOM, enfermedad de las estructuras de sostén de los dientes (concepto no activo), Paradontosis, enfermedad de las estructuras de sostén de los dientes (trastorno), Enfermedad periodontal, enfermedad de las estructuras de sostén de los dientes, enfermedad periodontal, Enfermedades Periodontales, Parodontosis
Japanese 歯周障害NOS, シシュウショウガイNOS, シシュウビョウ, 歯周病, 歯周疾患, 歯根膜疾患
Swedish Parodontala sjukdomar
Finnish Hampaiden vieruskudoksen sairaudet
Czech Onemocnění periodontu, Porucha periodontu NOS, parodontóza, paradentóza, paradontóza, parodont - nemoci, nemoci parodontu
Korean 상세불명의 치주질환
Polish Choroby przyzębia, Parodontopatie, Paradontopatia zanikowa
Hungarian Periodontalis betegség, Periodontalis betegség k.m.n.
Norwegian Periodontale sykdommer