Reynolds (2018) The Echocardiographer's Pocket Reference, Arizona Heart Association, p. 323-4
Palma, Bourque and Jordan (2019) Introduction to Adult Echo Ultrasound Conference, GulfCoast Ultrasound, St. Petersburg
Mateer and Jorgensen (2012) Introduction and Advanced Emergency Medicine Ultrasound Conference, GulfCoast Ultrasound, St. Pete's Beach
Noble (2011) Emergency and Critical Care Ultrasound, Cambridge University Press, New York, p. 61-88
Orman, Dawson and Mallin in Majoewsky (2013) EM:Rap 13(1): 4-6
Reardon (2011) Pocket Atlas Emergency Ultrasound, McGraw Hill, New York, p. 61-106
Stowell, Kessler and Lotz (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(8): 13-22
Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)
These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Apical Four Chamber Echocardiogram View." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Search Bing for all related images
FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point-of-care medical reference for primary care and emergency clinicians. Started in 1995, this collection now contains 6760 interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and 732 chapters. Content is updated monthly with systematic literature reviews and conferences.
Although access to this website is not restricted, the information found here is intended for use by medical providers. Patients should address specific medical concerns with their physicians.
This page was written by Scott Moses, MD, last revised on 1/28/2020 and last published on 3/9/2020.