II. History

  1. Albert Nobel stabilized Nitroglycerin for dynamite
    1. Some postulate that he died of Nitroglycerin toxicity

VI. Mechanism

  1. Relaxes vascular Smooth Muscle
  2. Venous Dilation (more than Nitroprusside)
    1. Inhibits venous return (Preload)
      1. Decreases intra-myocardial wall tension
      2. Decreases intraventricular work
    2. Reduces left ventricular filling pressure
      1. Decreases myocardial oxygen demand
      2. Reduces Myocardial Ischemia
    3. Cardiac Output
      1. Increased in Congestive Heart Failure
      2. Decreased or normal if no Heart Failure
  3. Arterial Dilation (less than Nitroprusside)
    1. Relieves Angina
    2. Dilates large coronary arteries
    3. Antagonizes vasospasm
    4. Increases coronary collateral Blood Flow
      1. Increases perfusion to ischemic Myocardium
    5. Decreases Systemic Vascular Resistance
  4. Esophageal Spasm also responds to nitrates
    1. Pain relief with Nitroglycerin is not always Angina

VII. Drug Interactions

  1. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors (e.g. Viagra or Sildenafil)
    1. Profound hypotensive reaction
    2. Do not use with Nitroglycerin!
    3. Nitrates may be used >24 hours after Sildenafil or vardenafil or >48 hours after Tadalafil
  2. Tissue Plasminogen Activator (Alteplase, tPA)
    1. IV Nitroglycerin may reduce plasma concentrations
  3. Heparin
    1. IV Nitroglycerin may reduce Anticoagulant response

VIII. Adverse Effects

  1. Headache
  2. Hypotension
    1. High risk with Aortic Stenosis, Pulmonary Hypertension, Hypotension, PDE5 Inhibitor, right-sided Myocardial Infarction
    2. Reduce Nitrate dose
    3. Administer Intravenous Fluid bolus
    4. Consider Atropine if Bradycardia present
  3. Methemoglobinemia
  4. Hypoxemia (Ventilation-perfusion mismatch)

IX. References

  1. Orman and Mattu in Herbert (2017) EM:Rap 17(7): 6-7

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Related Studies

Cost: Medications

nitroglycerin (on 5/17/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
NITROGLYCERIN 0.1 MG/HR PATCH Generic $0.66 each
NITROGLYCERIN 0.2 MG/HR PATCH Generic $0.47 each
NITROGLYCERIN 0.3 MG TABLET SL Generic $0.30 each
NITROGLYCERIN 0.4 MG TABLET SL Generic $0.57 each
NITROGLYCERIN 0.4 MG/HR PATCH Generic $0.54 each
NITROGLYCERIN 0.6 MG/HR PATCH Generic $0.79 each
NITROGLYCERIN 400 MCG SPRAY Generic $42.93 per gram
NITROGLYCERIN ER 2.5 MG CAP Generic $0.27 each
NITROGLYCERIN ER 6.5 MG CAP Generic $0.37 each
NITROGLYCERIN LINGUAL 0.4 MG Generic $34.50 per gram

Ontology: Nitroglycerin (C0017887)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) In medicine, a substance used as a drug to treat certain heart conditions and to widen the openings in blood vessels. Nitroglycerin is being studied as a way to help chemotherapy work better by making tumor cells more sensitive to the drugs. It is a type of vasodilator.
Definition (NCI) An organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Nitroglycerin is converted into nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle and activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing cGMP concentration, and resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. Dilatation of the veins results in decreased venous return to the heart, thereby decreasing left ventricular volume (reduced preload) and decreasing myocardial oxygen requirements. Arteriolar relaxation reduces arteriolar resistance (reduced afterload), thereby decreasing myocardial oxygen demands. In addition, nitroglycerine causes coronary artery dilatation, thereby improving myocardial blood distribution.
Definition (CSP) volatile vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris by stimulating guanylate cyclase and lowering cytosolic calcium; an explosive compound rendered safe when compounded in tablets with mannitol.
Definition (MSH) A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D005996
SnomedCT 71759000, 387623004, 319379008, 387404004
LNC LP18092-4, MTHU003375
English Glyceryl Trinitrate, Nitroglycerin, Trinitrate, Glyceryl, 1,2,3-Propanetriol, trinitrate, Glyceryl trinitr [generic add], nitroglycerin, Glyceryl trinitrate [generic additions], NITROGLYCERIN, 1,2,3-propanetriol trinitrate, nitroglycerin (medication), Nitroglycerin [Chemical/Ingredient], nitroglycerol, nitroglycerine, glyceryl trinitrate, Glyceryl trinitrate (product), Glyceryl trinitrate [generic additions] (product), Glyceryl trinitrate, Nitroglycerol, GTN - Glyceryl trinitrate, Glyceryl trinitrate product, Nitroglycerin (product), Nitroglycerin (substance), Glyceryl trinitrate [generic additions] (substance)
Swedish Nitroglycerin
Czech nitroglycerin, glyceryltrinitrát
Finnish Glyseryylitrinitraatti
French Trinitrate de glycéryle, Trinitrate de glycérol, Trinitroglycérol, Nitroglycérine, Nitroglycérol, Trinitrine, Trinitroglycérine
Japanese トリニトログリセリン, ニトログリセリン, ニトログリセロール
Polish Nitrogliceryna, Trójazotan glicerolu, Nitrocard
Spanish trinitrato de glicerilo (agregados genéricos) (producto), trinitrato de glicerilo, trinitrato de glicerilo (producto), trinitrato de glicerilo (agregados genéricos), gliceriltrinitrato, nitroglicerina (producto), nitroglicerina (sustancia), nitroglicerina, nitroglicerol, Nitroglicerina, Trinitrato de Glicerilo
German Glyzerintrinitrat, Nitroglycerin
Italian Nitroglicerina
Portuguese Nitroglicerina, Trinitrato de Gliceril

Ontology: Anti-anginal [EPC] (C1874267)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
English Anti-anginal [EPC], Anti-anginal